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(three children) Marriage M. 1121 Marriage (a child) M.1100 Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (two children) Marriage (a child) Marriage (two children) Marriage (three children) Marriage (four children) Marriage Marriage (three children) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (three children) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (two children) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Illegitimate Marriage (three children) Marriage (a child) Marriage (three children) Marriage (three children) Marriage (two children) Marriage (eleven children) Marriage (five children) Married 1848 and sailed to America c.1851 then to Australia 1853 Marriage (five children) Married 1808 in Stogumber Marriage (three children) Marriage (two children) Marriage (four children) Married 1655 Marriage (seven children) Married 1690 Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Married 1789 at Combe Florey, Somerset - settled in Shannon, Ireland Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Married 1929 Marriage (two children) John Fraunceis Gwyn 1st marriage 1761 Marriage No children from either marriage Marriage (six children) America Marriage (a child) America Marriage (three children) Married in America 1857 Marriage (a child) Marriage Marriage (a child) Llansanor, Wales Marriage (a child) Elmhurst home "Huntingdon" Marriage (two children) Marriage (three children) Marriage Marriage Marriage (a child) Marriage Marriage (four children) Elmhurst home "Deer Park" Marriage (four children) Marriage (two children) Marriage (a child) Marriage America Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (two children) Marriage (two children) Married 1946 - united the feuding houses of Percy and Douglas Marriage (four children) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (two children) Marriage Marriage Marriage (two children) Marriage (three children) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (two children) Marriage (a child) FIRST MARRIAGE Marriage Marriage (four children) Marriage (three children) 1849 married en route to Australia Marriage (three children) 2nd Husband Marriage (twelve children) Kerang Marriage (three children) Marriage (five children) Migrated to Australia from Northamptonshire, England 1850 Marriage (two children) Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage Marriage (a child) Marriage (four children) Marriage (a child) Marriage (two children) Marriage Marriage (a child) 2nd Marriage Divorce Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Emigrated to Australia 1924 Marriage (ten children) Jane's 2nd marriage - 1900 Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (three children) Marriage (five children) Barrell Inn, Birmingham, England Marriage (a child) Sydney Marriage (a child) 2005 Marriage (three children) Marriage Marriage Marriage Marriage KERANG Marriage (two children) Marriage (two children) Marriage (four children) Marriage Marriage Marriage (a child) Marriage (a child) Marriage (five children) 1958 Dr. Ralph Gwynne Ballard Born Melbourne, Australia at the Jessie Mac Pherson Memorial Hospital - 5 August 1958 at 11.10pm local time.

Educated at Deepdene State School then at Scotch College, Melbourne.
Studied medicine at University of Melbourne, graduating MBBS 1982.
Also in 1982 did 2 months elective study at Guy's Hospital, London, in the respiratory medicine unit located at New Cross Hospital.

Hospital posts:
- 1983 (internship at the Austin Hospital) to 1986 (Fellow in Community Psychiatry and Fellow in Occupational Medicine), and trained with the Family Medicine Program of the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners.
- Assistant Medical Consultant to the Acupuncture Research Clinic, Preston and Northcote Community Hospital 1992 to 1998.
- Visiting Medical Officer at Swinburne University Hospital 2002 to 2003.
- Medical Acupuncturist at The Northern Hospital, Epping 2007 to the present.

From 1983 to 1995 also studied counselling and psychotherapy, yoga and meditation, hypnotherapy, acupuncture, homoeopathy, spinal manipulation, nutritional medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, colour and crystal therapy (Aura-Soma & Spirale), intentional healing with Clif Sanderson, Tera Mai Reiki and Seichem with Jenny Levi, and spiritual healing with Shannon.

Entered general practice 1987 with Dr. Bob Long in Sussex Street, North Coburg.

1991 changed his practice to Wholistic Medicine and moved to the Whole Health Clinic Fairfield.  Worked there until the clinic closed in 1999.  Since then was in solo wholistic medical practice at Eaglemont in Melbourne.

December 2002 - Moved to East Warburton with his new wife Sushie to live in the mountains at the head of the Yarra River.  Very peaceful lifestyle - a "seachange".  Since then working part-time in wholistic medical practice in Warburton Ralph has also done work in integrated cancer treatment.  Ralph teaches about holistic and spiritual approaches to life.  He has also become an author with a book on management of disturbed children to be published in 2008.  Ralph and Sushie spend much time on their property growing their own vegetables, enjoying nature, and following sustainable living principles.

Teaching Posts:
- Subject Coordinator for the "Introduction To Acupuncture" Unit Graduate School of Integrative Medicine, Swinburne University.
- Lecturer on mind-body medicine and on complementary therapies at Victoria University (Graduate Diploma in Complementary Medicine), and to the undergraduate medical courses at Melbourne & Monash Universities
- Senior lecturer on homoeopathy at the Melbourne College of Natural Medicine 1992 to 2002.
- Mentor for the Monash University "Graduate Certificate in Medical Acupuncture" 2009 to the present.

Research Work:
Grant recipient & Project Director for "The Life Enhancement Program" conducted at The Whole Health Clinic Inc., 202 Station Street, Fairfield.
The project was funded and supervised through federal government grant under the "General Practice and Divisions Program" from 1991 to 1997.
The research was into group support programs for people with cancer, AIDS, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and other immune system disorders.  The statistical research carried out clearly validated the value of such intervention groups in improving quality of life for these patient groups.

Qualifications:
MBBS:        Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (University of Melbourne, 1982)
CSCT:        Certificate of Satisfactory Completion of Training in general practice   (Family Medicine Program - Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, 1987)
Cert Manual Med:    Certificate of Manual Medicine  (Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, 1989)
MD (MA):  Doctor of  Medicine, Medicina Alternativa, Sri Lanka  (Honorary title, 1989)
Dip Clin Hypnosis:  Diploma of Clinical Hypnosis (Australian Society of Hypnosis,1990)
FAMAC:     Fellow of the Australian Medical Acupuncture College (1991)
Dip Hom:    Diploma of Homoeopathy (Melbourne College of Homoeopathy, 1991)
Reiki and Seichem Master (Tera Mai) - 2001.

Publications:
- "KIDS! Indigo Children and Cheeky Monkeys - A Practical Guide for the Modern Parent".  Book co-authored with Scott Alexander King.  Published by Blue Angel Gallery, 2008.
- Article in the medical journal "Australian Family Physician" entitled "Homoeopathy - An Overview"  -  December 2000 issue
- Article in "Australian Family Physician" entitled "Management of Stabilised Schizophrenics"  - December 1986 issue
- Published Case Histories in the book "The Family Counselling Casebook" by Dr. John Gunzburg.  Publisher - McGraw Hill. Australia 1991
- Foreword to the book "From Rock Rose to Rock Water - Journeyings - Along the Path with Edward Bach" by Denise Carrington-Smith. Publisher-Abbey Books. Australia 1995

Plays bagpipes.
Played with the Scotch College Pipe Band (1972 to 1976), then the Hawthorn City Pipe Band from 1976 to 1983 - including winning the Australian Grade 1 Pipe Band Championship in 1982.
Taught piobaireachd (the ancient classical music of the bagpipes) by Ross Campbell 1976 to 1983 - also 1 day of private tuition by Sir Ian Mackay (New Zealand 1980), and short courses with Donald Bain, Ian Mackay, Donald Morrison, James MacKintosh and Murray Henderson.

Other interersts - meditation, yoga & qigong. 
1990 went to India for 1 month to visit the guru Sri Sri Thakur Balak Brahmachari  (Thakur).
1272 - 1315 Henry de Percy 8th Baron Percy & 1st Lord Percy 43 43 8th Baron de Percy.
First Lord Percy of Alnwick (1309 - 1315).
Purchased Alnwick Castle in Northumberland and the title of Baron of Alnwick from William de Vescy in 1309.
Fought with King Edward II of England at the Battle of Bannockburn against King Robert The Bruce of Scotland.  The Scots triumphed and set Scotland free from English rule for 400 years until 1745.

It was the third Henry Percy who purchased Alnwick Castle in 1309 from Antony Bec, Bishop of Durham and guardian of the last De Vesci, and from that time the fortunes of the Percies, though they still held their Yorkshire estates, were linked permanently with the little town on the Aln, and the fortress which commanded and defended it. The fourth Henry Percy began to build the castle as we see it now; but to call him "the fourth" is a little confusing, as he was the second Henry Percy, Lord of Alnwick. On the whole, it will be clearer to begin the enumerations of the various Henry Percies from the time they became Lords of Alnwick. It was, then, Henry Percy the second, Lord of Alnwick, who began the re-building of the castle; he also was jointly responsible for the safety of the realm during the absence of Edward III in the French wars, and in this official capacity he helped to win the battle of Neville's Cross. His son, Henry Henry, married a sister of John of Gaunt, and their son, the next Henry Percy, was created Earl of Northumberland, which title he was given after the coronation of Richard II. Nor was this all, for he was that Northumberland whose doings in the next reign fill so large a part of Shakespeare's Henry IV, and he was the father of the most famous Percy of all, Henry Percy the fifth, better known as "Harry Hotspur." Hotspur never became Earl of Northumberland, being slain at Shrewsbury in the lifetime of his father, whose estates were forfeited under attainder on account of the rebellion of himself and his son against King Henry IV.

Henry V restored Hotspur's son, the second Earl, to his family honours, and the Percies were staunch Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses which followed, the third Earl and three of his brothers losing their lives in the cause. The fifth Earl was a gorgeous person whose magnificence equalled, almost, that of royalty. Henry Percy, the sixth Earl of Northumberland, loved Ann Boleyn, and was her accepted suitor before Henry VIII unfortunately discovered the lady's charm, and interfered such that Percy lost his prospective bride. He had no son, although married later to the daughter of the Earl of Shrewsbury, and his nephew, Thomas Percy, became the seventh Earl.

Thereafter, a succession of plots and counterplots — the Rising of the North, the plots to liberate Mary Queen of Scots, and the Gunpowder Plot — each claimed a Percy among their adherents. On this account the eighth and ninth Earls spent many years in the Tower, but the tenth Earl, Algernon, fought for King Charles in the Civil War, the male line of the Percy-Louvain house ending with Josceline, the eleventh Earl. The heiress to the vast Percy estates married the Duke of Somerset; and her grand-daughter married a Yorkshire knight, Sir Hugh Smithson, who in 1766 was created the first Duke of Northumberland and Earl Percy, and it is their descendants who now represent the famous old house.

1034 - 1096 William Baron de Percy 62 62 William Baron Algernon de Percy ("algers-nons" means "with whiskers' - having a beard).   In 1067 accompanied William The Conqueror on the Norman invasion of England.  He secured the lands of Yorkshire for William The Conqueror against the Picts /Scots.  He was subsequently granted extensive land in Yotkshire, Lincolnshire and Sussex and was created First Baron de Percy.

William de Perci was wild and adventurous and wore a beard(which was apparently unusual at this time). For this he was known as Al-gers-nons (meaning with whiskers) and the name of Algernon has followed the Percy race to this very day.
There does not seem to be any proof that William de Percy was with William the Conquerer at the battle of Hastings in 1066. In fact it seems that William (Algernon) de Percy arrived in England in 1067 to assist the Conquerer mop up remaining resistance in Yorkshire and shore up the defences against the threat from Scotland and from the possibility of Viking invasion. For his trouble William de Percy was given knights fees and land, initially under Earl Hugh of Chester. By 1086 William's family including brothers Serlo and Picot is charted as owning various estates in Yorkshire and the surrounding counties.

In 1070 he was engaged on works connected with the rebuilding of York Castle after its destruction by the Danes and in 1072 he took part in the Conquerors expedition to Scotland. At the Domesday survey he was tenant in chief in the three ridings of Yorkshire, in Lindsey, with a small holding in Nottingham and of Humbledon Hants which he had received with his wife (Emma de Port). He was also an under tenant of the Earl of Chester in Whitby and in Catton and in the city of York and of the Bishop of Durham in Scarborough and Lund.
He built the castle at Topcliffe and before 1086 he refounded the monastery at Whitby. He was among the Barons present when William The Conqueror heard a plea relating to property of the Abbey of Fecamp and he witnessed charters of William II in the period before 1095. In 1096 he set out on the first crusade and died and was buried at Mount Joy near Jerusalem. (This was also the ancient burial site of Samuel of the Old Testament and the hill today is called Nebi Samwel) just 10 km's NW of Jerusalem. Following Williams dying wishes Sir Ralph Eversly a Knight carried his heart back to England and it was buried at Whitby Abbey. William had sons Alan, Walter, William, Richard and Arnolde.
William became the 2nd Abbot of Whitby in 1102.
From Richard sprang the Percies of Dunsley.
Arnolde de Percy witnessed his father William de Percy's charter to Whitby and from him came the Percies of Kildale and Kilnwick Percy.
William de Percy had 2 brothers. Serlo de Percy became prior of Whitby Abbey and Picot de Percy was a tenant of William at Bolton upon Dearne and Sutton upon Derwent. Picot de Percy donated the church at Bolton Percy to Nostell priory. His son Robert de Percy gave the church at Sutton upon Derwent to Whitby Abbey witnessed by his son William. There was further issue from this branch of the family for in 1266 Piers de Percy held Wharram Percy in Chief and had other lands in Sutton upon Derwent, Carnaby and Bolton Percy which all came under the Percy fee. Piers de Percy was of the direct male Percy lineage, which apparently became extinct in 1168.

This excerpt is from - The Conqueror and His Companions by J.R. Planché, Somerset Herald. London: Tinsley Brothers, 1874.

The name of Percy, strange to say, does not occur in the Roll of Battle Abbey; for I cannot agree with my old friend Sir Bernard Burke in his discovery of it in Percelay, a form in which I have never found it in any authority. Strange, because in view of the numerous interpolations it contains, one can scarcely imagine the omission of a name so distinguished in Anglo-Norman history. But for those manifest additions the fact of the absence of the name of Percy would go far to establish the genuineness of the Rolls, as no member of that family appears to have fought at Senlac, and William de Percy must be placed in the list of those noble Normans who "came over with the Conqueror" on his return to England in 1067, amongst whom I have already mentioned Roger de Montgoineri and Hugh d'Avranches.
William de Percy was the sworn brother-in-arms of the latter, and accompanied him to England, and who on being made Earl of Chester transferred to him the lordship of Whitby, with the extensive domains attached to it in the East Riding of Yorkshire. By what service he obtained the vast possessions held by him at the time of the general survey we have no information, an old manuscript, quoted by Dugdale, simply saying that, "being much beloved by the King," he enjoyed them through his bounty, and it is not till we arrive at the reign of Stephen that we hear of any remarkable actions attributed to his descendants, when his great-great-grandson, William de Percy, distinguished himself by his valour in the famous battle of the Standard. The name of this ancient and noble family was derived from their great fief of Perci, near Villedieu, in Normandy, and according to tradition they were the descendants of one Mainfred, a Dane, who had preceded Rollo into Neustria. Geoffrey, the son of Mainfred, followed him in the service of Rollo, and was succeeded in rotation by William, Geoffrey, William, and Geoffrey, all born in Normandy, the latter Geoffrey being the father of William de Percy, the subject of this notice, and of Serlo, his brother, the first abbot of Whitby, a monastery founded by William on the site of one called Skinshale, which had been destroyed by Inguar and Hubba.
Upon this abbey William bestowed the towns of Seaxby and Everley; but resumed and regranted them to Ralph de Everley, his esquire, who had been in his service many years. Abbot Serlo, his brother, feeling injured by this proceeding, made his complaint to William Rufus, with whom he had been on terms of intimacy during the reign of his father, and the King ordered restitution to be made. Serlo, however, was not satisfied with the restoration of the towns, and having no confidence in his brother, determined to quit Whitby and establish himself where he should hold under the King only, and be out of his brother's power. He therefore begged of Rufus six carucates of land in Hakenas and Northfield, and translated thither part of the community of Whitby.
William de Percy married a lady named Emma de Port, "in discharging of his conscience," says our ancient writer, she being "very heire" to the estates given to him by William the Conqueror, and in 1096, having joined the first Crusade in company with Robert Court-heuse, died at Montjoye, near Jerusalem, the celebrated eminence so named by the Christian Pilgrims, because from there they first caught sight of the sacred city. His body was brought back to England, and buried in the chapter house at Whitby.
This Anglo-Norman race of the Percys apparently became extinct in the male line at the close of the 12th century by the deaths, without issue, of the four sons of his grandson William, when this great inheritance was divided between their two sisters and co-heirs, Maud, wife of William de Mauduit, Earl of Warwick, who died without issue, and Agnes, on whom the whole possessions of the Percys in England devolved, and passed with her hand to Joceleyn de Louvaine, brother of Adeliza, Queen of Henry I, who assumed the name of Percy, retaining the arms of his own family.
From the issue of this marriage descended those great Earls of Northumberland and Worcester, whose deeds and fortunes are interwoven with the most important portions of our history from the reign of Henry III to that of Charles II.

The title of Earl of Northumberland was created several times in the Peerages of England and Great Britain. Its most famous holders were the House of Percy (also Perci), who were the most powerful noble family in Northern England for much of the Middle Ages. The heirs of the Percys were ultimately made Duke of Northumberland in 1766

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From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Percy:

The House of Percy (old French Perci) were the most powerful noble family in Northern England for much of the Middle Ages, having descended from William de Percy who crossed from Normandy to England with William I in early December 1067 and was rebuilding York Castle in 1070. The name derives from the village of Percy-en-Auge in Normandy, the home of the family at the time of the Norman Conquest. Members have held the titles of Earl of Northumberland or Duke of Northumberland to this day, in addition to Baron Percy and other titles. In common with their rivals, the House of Neville, the Percy surname was twice adopted through marriage to an heiress. In the 12th century, the original Percy line was represented by Agnes de Percy, Baroness Percy, whose son by Joscelin of Louvain retained the Percy surname. Again in the 18th century, heiress Elizabeth Percy married Sir Hugh Smithson, who adopted the surname Percy and was created Duke of Northumberland.

Recurring names in the Percy genealogy include Henry (first borne by the 7th Baron and his 10 immediate successors, including the 1st Earl and Harry Hotspur), Hugh (first borne by the 1st Duke), Joscelin (first borne by Joscelin of Louvain), and Algernon (first borne by the 1st Baron as a nickname: Aux Gernons or "with moustaches").

Prominent members of the family include:
William de Percy, 1st Baron Percy (d. 1096), nicknamed "Aux Gernons" ("with moustaches"), Norman baron who emigrated to England after the Conquest

Alan de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy (ca. 1069–1135)

William de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy (d. ca. 1150)

William de Percy, 4th Baron Percy (1112–1168)

Agnes de Percy, Baroness Percy (1134-1205) married Joscelin of Louvain (d.c. 1189)

Richard de Percy, 5th Baron Percy (d. 1198), signatory to Magna Carta.

William de Percy, 6th Baron Percy (1193–1245)

Henry de Percy, 7th Baron Percy (1228–1272)

Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick (1273–1314)

Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick (1299–1352)
  - Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick (see below)
  - Thomas Percy (d.1369), Bishop of Norwich

Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick (1320–1368)

Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland (1341–1408) (forfeit 1405), helped Henry IV seize the throne, later rebelled against him

Sir Henry Percy (1364/1366–1403), also called Harry Hotspur, helped Henry IV seize the throne but later rebelled against him, killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury
  - Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland (see below)
  - Lady Elizabeth Percy (c.1390–1437)

Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland (1394–1455), supporter of King Henry VI, killed at the beginning of the Wars of the Roses
  - Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland (see below)
  - Thomas Percy, 1st Baron Egremont (1422–1460)
  - Katherine Percy, Countess of Kent (1423–c.1475)
  - Ralph Percy (d.1464), knight, Lancastrian supporter in the Wars of the Roses
  - William Percy (1428–1462), Bishop of Carlisle

Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland (1421–1461) (forfeit 1461), Lancastrian leader in the Wars of the Roses   - Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland (see below)
  - Margaret Percy (b.c.1447)
 
Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland (1449–1489) (restored 1470), aligned with Yorkists, present but inactive at the Battle of Bosworth Field
  - Henry Algernon Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland (see below)
  - Eleanor Percy, Duchess of Buckingham (1474–1530), daughter of the 4th Earl
  - Alan Percy (c.1480–1560), son of the 4th Earl, English churchman and academic
  - Anne FitzAlan, Countess of Arundel (1485–1552), daughter of the 4th Earl
  - Thomas Percy (1560–1605), great-grandson of the 4th Earl, participated in the Gunpowder Plot

Henry Algernon Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland (1478–1527)
  -  Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland (1502–1537), betrothed to Anne Boleyn
  - Thomas Percy (c.1504–1537), participated the Pilgrimage of Grace revolt
        - Blessed Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland (1528–1572) (forfeit 1571; restored 1572), led the Rising of the North
         - Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland (see below)


Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland (1532–1585)        
  - Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland (see below)
  - George Percy (1580–1632), explorer, author, early governor of Virginia

Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland (1564–1632), known as "The Wizard Earl" for his intellectual pursuits, imprisoned after the Gunpowder Plot
  - Dorothy Sidney, Countess of Leicester (c.1598–1659)
  - Lucy Hay, Countess of Carlisle (1599–1660)
  - Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland (see below)
  - Henry Percy, Baron Percy of Alnwick (d.1659), royalist in the English Civil War

Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland (1602–1668), Lord High Admiral of England, later a Parliamentarian in the English Civil War

Joceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670)

Elizabeth Seymour, Duchess of Somerset (1667–1722), only daughter and heiress of the 11th Earl

Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, 1st Earl of Northumberland (1684–1750), son of Elizabeth Seymour

Elizabeth Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, 2nd Baroness Percy (1716–1776), daughter and heiress of the 7th Duke of Somerset, married Sir Hugh Smithson (who adopted the name Percy)

Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1714–1786), nee Smithson
  - Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland (1742–1817), British army officer during the American Revolutionary War  
         - Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland (1785–1847)
         - Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland (1792–1865)
  - Algernon Percy, 1st Earl of Beverley (1750–1830), second son of the 1st Duke
         - George Percy, 2nd Earl of Beverley, 5th Duke of Northumberland (see below)
         - Algernon Percy (1779–1833), diplomat
         - Hugh Percy (1784–1856), bishop
         - Josceline Percy (1784–1856), Royal Navy officer
         - William Henry Percy (1788–1855), Royal Navy officer
  - James Smithson (1764–1829), illegitimate son of the 1st Duke, associated with the Smithsonian Institution and smithsonite

George Percy, 2nd Earl of Beverley, 5th Duke of Northumberland (1778–1867), politician
  - Algernon George Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland (see below)
  - Lord Josceline Percy (1811–1881), politician
  - Lord Henry Percy (1817–1877), lieutenant-general in the British Army

Algernon George Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland (1810–1899), politician Henry George Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland (see below)
Lord Algernon Percy (1851–1933), politician

Henry George Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland (1846–1918), politician
  - Henry Percy, Earl Percy (1871–1909), politician
  - Alan Ian Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland (see below)
  - Eustace Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Newcastle (1887–1958), politician

Alan Ian Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland (1880–1930)  
  - Henry George Alan Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland (1912–1940), killed in World War II
  - Hugh Algernon Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland (see below)
  - Elizabeth Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton and Brandon (1916–2008)

Hugh Algernon Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland (1914–1988)
  - Henry Alan Walter Richard Percy, 11th Duke of Northumberland (1953–1995)
  - Ralph George Algernon Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland (b. 1956)
         - George Dominic Percy, Earl Percy (b. May 4, 1984)

1960 Sushie Ram Narayan Born Suva, Fiji - 4 June 1960.
1979 migrated to Australia with her parents Dr. Ram Narayan and Sheila Vimla Kumari.  Has a younger brother and sister.
Of Indian descent - ??the family were originally from Rajastan.
Christened Sushi Ram NARAYAN RUDAL.
1982 - Naturalised as an Australian citizen.
1929 - 2013 Kathlyn Margaret Moore OAM 84 84 Third child.

Highly successful water colour painter.
Many major exhibitions.
Arts advisor to the Victorian Government (John Cain premier).
Arts advisor to the Caulfield City Council. 
President of the Victorian Artists Society. 
Foundation member of the Australian Guild of Realist Artists, and of the Old Watercolour Society (Victorian branch).
Awarded the OAM (Member of the Order of Australia) for services to the arts in 1999.
Appointed Patron of the Water Colour Society of Victoria (previously called the Old Water Colour Society - Victoria) 2008.

Educated at St. Catherine's College in Melbourne.  During WWII was evacuated to Marylands guest house in Marysville for several years.
Later went through the fine art course at Swinburne Technical School when the course was in its infancy.  Kath became one of the first student representatives at Swinburne.
She later worked in several graphic art studios where she met Stan.
Subsequently she had a very active career as a watercolour painter, art teacher and in art politics.
She became well-known as an "artist's artist" and was reckoned to be in the same league as the great watercolourist of the 1930's J.J. Hilder.  This gave her much satisfaction in later life.
Always one to get her teeth into things, she has a very strong sharp mind and very definite opinions - which were often but not always right.
Truth and integrity matter deeply to her.  This is reflected in the simple mastery of her painting which gets to the very essence of the subject.

Always a rebel and a feminist activist long before the concept was even born, Kath was known to say that she did not need religion because she found God in nature all around her.

In her youth rode horses at fox hunts and in show jumping.  Famously was photographed falling off a horse at the Royal Melbourne Show Jumps - this made the front page of the Herald Sun newspaper.
1925 - 1997 Stanley Ballard 72 72 Had polio as a child.  Survived this, but had a permanently weakened right arm as a result.  Had to relearn to draw with his left hand.
During WWII he could not serve due to the after-effects of the polio and due to bad flat feet.  He enjoyed saying his one real contribution to the war effort was to design a condom packet for the American soldiers which did not show through the pocket of their dress shirts.

In 1950 he visited family back in England with his parents - he then travelled to Paris with artist friends to attend a graphic art conference with an art scholarship he had won.  Then in 1956 he again visited family in England on his own.
On his return he married Kath Moore.

Commercial artist, and successful portrait painter (in oils).
He trained as an oil painter with Sir William Dargie at the National Gallery Art School.
Had a heart attack (from stress and overwork) in his 50's. 
Recovered well from this and changed his lifestyle.
Resumed a sensible working life as a graphic artist and painter.  Spent more time with family & friends and in nature.
Dropped dead suddenly and unexpectedly from an arrhythmia while visiting an artist friend aged 71.

Always enjoyed life and loved people.  He often let people know his star-sign was Pisces and that he was like the cartoon character Charlie Brown - "wishy washy".  Also likened himself to the suave charming fellow Pisces actor David Niven.

For many years played jazz saxophone and clarinet in groups in the 1950's, and was an early colleague of jazz great Don Burrows.  He loved the singer Cleo Laine.
Stan also loved classical music - especially the operas of Mozart and Richard Wagner to which he introduced son Ralph at a young age.

Also had a great interest in things alternative and esoteric.
The work of Nicola Tesla fascinated him, as did occult subjects such as the Tarot, UFO's and government conspiracies.

Had a whacky sense of humour - loved The Goons, Monty Python, Rowan Atkinson, etc.

A charming, artistic, musical and caring man who loved life and lived it to the full.
1890 - 1966 Elsie Rebecca Hopeton Simpson 76 76 Born in Ballarat, Victoria.

Studied painting with well-known watercolourist Harold Herbert at the Ballarat School Of Mines.

Her middle name of Hopeton was to honour Lord Hopeton.

She developed Parkinson's Disease following on from viral encephalitis in the 1920's.  She declined severely from the shock of her son Gordon's death in WWII.
Later had a hip fracture and died of complications from this.
1891 - 1987 His Honour Judge James Henry Moore 96 96 9th child.
County Court judge.
VFL footballer - he played with Richmond then later Melbourne.

Born in Elmhurst at the family property "Deer Park".
Educated at Melbourne High School - soon after it was established.
His name is first on the school honours board - for gaining an external scholastic distinction in 1908.
He became head prefect there - School Captain in 1909.
1910 - played in the Old Boys football team.  Captained the football team in 1911.
1912 to 1915 played VFL football - initially with the Richmond Seconds (becoming captain), then in the Melbourne First XVIII.

In 1915 he enlisted with the Australian army and in 1916 was sent to France as a lieutenant in the AIF.  He joined his older brothers Edwin and Billy in England in the AIF.  In 1916 they all embarked to fight in the trenches in France under the command of General John Monash.  Jim rose to the rank of captain but was seriously wounded in 1917 and was invalided home.  Later brother Richard who had risen to the rank of sergeant, was killed in 1918.

According to Ted and Bev Moore, 5 brothers went to war - Jim, Edwin, Walter, Richard and Billy (William).  They quite often got together while overseas and "got up to lots of hi-jinks".
Wounded in WWI - survived his wounds and returned to Melbourne to marry his fiance Elsie.
The story goes that at Ypres in 1917 he served as an infantry officer (captain) and was leading a column of troops across "no man's land" during a night attack, when a grenade went off between his legs.  This removed a substantial part of the muscle, soft tissue and blood vessels in his legs.  A bullet also lodged near his heart and spine.  He was taken to a field hospital, and surprisingly survived.  He told the story that the only thing that kept him going was the vision of his sweetheart Elsie waiting for him back home.
He did return home and married Elsie in October 1918 at Ballarat.  They honey-mooned in Lorne, Victoria - in later years they often returned here for holidays (staying at Erskine House).
 
He also recovered sufficiently to father 3 children, and to later play tennis (winning many trophies at the Kooyoong lawn tennis club), and then lawn bowls in his old age.
Over the years he did require further surgery for the effects of his war wounds, including for a bullet which was permanently wedged near his spine and so could never be removed - too dangerous to attempt surgery.

From 1911 he studied law at Melbourne University.
He completed a Bachelor Of Arts and Master Of Laws degrees (B.A., LL.M.) at Melbourne University and graduated with first class honours.
The embarkation records from the Australian War Memorial show he had enisted on 24 June 1915 aged 24, and his occupation at the time was Clerk - presumably a legal clerk.
On 20 June 1916 he embarked from Melbourne on the troopship HMAT Runic with the rank of Lieutenant.
He returned home from the war in 1917 - wounded in action.
In 1919 he was admitted to practice as a barrister and solicitor.  He signed the roll of Counsel in 1920, and practised as a barrister at the Victorian Bar.  He was a forceful advocate and developed a solid general practice.
In 1921 he went to Rabaul, New Guinea, as Administrator.
During WWII he enlisted in the Army Legal Department, and was legal officer for the 4th Division 2nd A.I.F. with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel 1939 - 1945.
In 1943 he was appointed a Judge of the County Court of Victoria, and stayed there until 1963 when he reached the statutory retiring age of 72.
When the position of Chairman of the County Court was first created in 1956 he was appointed to this, and remained in the Chair until 1960.
He was a significant legal figure in Victoria, and played a major part in introducing proper legislation into Victoria with regard to drink-driving and for workplace safety.
Tutor in Law at Melbourne University.
He was appointed as the First Chairman of the County Court of Victoria 1958 - 1960.

The first home of James and Elsie was at The Esplanade, Brighton Beach, circa 1921.  Their second home was at Middle Brighton, circa 1924.
For many years he and his wife and children lived at 15 Power Street, Hawthorn in Melbourne - the property was called "Alnwyck".  Jim commissioned the same  architect who had designed the "Deer Park" and "Huntingdon" properties, to build his Power Street house.
In his later years he moved to Burwood in Melbourne.

His beloved wife Elsie died in 1966.

In his old age he married for the second time at age 91 to a childhood schoolfriend from Elmhurst - Phillis Wise.  Phillis had grown up on the property next to Jim at Deer Park.

Known to his children and grand-children as "Poc".
1960 Vicki Margaret Ballard Educated at Deepdene Primary School, then Camberwell Church of England Girls Grammar School.
After completing HSC studied Drawing at Prahran Institute of Technology, then Graphic Design at Swinburne University of Technology.

Subsequently worked as a graphic designer for many years.  Once her daughter Jessie was born in 1998 she changed her focus and became a housewife, while also running the staff cafetaria at the IKEA store in Richmond, Melbourne.

Also for many years sang semi-professionally with modern jazz groups.
1963 Monty Toone Full blood Maori from New Zealand.
Born in Kaikohe, The Bay of Islands, North Island of New Zealand.

Worked for some years as a security guard and also as a forklift driver.

Has a long-standing passion as a jazz drummer.  Since 2005 has worked totally in this area.
1998 Jessica Toone Very successful at school.  Jessie excels in academic work, sport, and music - especially playing piano. 1948 Wendy Jean Frazer Trained as a registered nurse, with top marks in her graduation class, and later specialising in psychiatric nursing and then in occupational health.
Completed an intensive course in massage at the Melbourne School of Tactile Therapies, gaining top marks for theory.
Subsequently worked part-time with Ralph Ballard as a masseur when he was in general practice in the late 1980's, then as practice assistant for a number of years.
Subsequently worked as a carer.

Long-term student of meditation.

Met Ralph in 1986 while working in occupational health.  Married 1988.  Separated 1998 - initiated by Ralph.  Divorced 2000.
1994 - 2007 Lucky cat 13 13 Sensitive "knowing" cat. 1996 - 2018 Marmalade cat 22 22 Happy cat. 1857 - 1938 Mary Catherine McKinnon 81 81 Born in Hamilton, Victoria in 1857 - 3 years after her parents had emigrated from the Isle Of Mull, Scotland.
Married to Lewis Lawrence Simpson on 20 October 1887 at Warracknabeal, Victoria.
Descrbed by Kath Ballard as a tough and dour woman.
Died in her eighties, after her husband had passed away - circa 1938.

1860 - 1932 Lewis Lawrence Simpson 72 72 A kind and loving man.

For many years he ran a thriving general merchant store there (bookshop and framers in Sturt Street, Ballarat) known as "Simpson's Emporium".
Their home was 106 Drummond Street North, Ballarat, and was called "Ailsa".  The building is still standing and is now the Ballarat Surgical Clinic, opposite the St. John Of God Hospital.


The Simpsons are a lowland sept of the Fraser clan.  They probably derived  their name from the first name commonly used by the Fraser clan chiefs "Simon".  This became "son of Simon" or "son of Syme", then later "Sim-son", and finally to "Simpson".
The Simpsons were likely bonded to the Lord Lovats of Fraser (who most often used the name Simon - eg. the famous Simon Lord Lovat), and they probably lived around Inverness, the river Ness and Loch Ness, in the Lowlands of Scotland.

In addition Simpson is an old Anglo-Saxon family name common in the border regions between England and Scotland during medieval and renaissance times.  There are still many Simpsons in this region today.
It is likely they spread from here south into central England, and also north into the Scottish lowlands where they became affiliated with the Fraser Clan.

Fraser of Lovat Clan
History
Robert the Bruce’s chamberlain was Sir Alexander Fraser and it is from his brother, Sir Simon Fraser, that the Frasers of Lovat descend. Sir Simon acquired the Bisset Lands around Beauly when he won the hand of its heiress, and these lands became the family home.
A record from 1367 describes Hugh Fraser as ‘Lord of Lovat and portioner of Ard’, the first known connection the Frasers had with Lovat land. By 1422 the Frasers of Lovat had extended their lands to include Stratherrick by Loch Ness.
Around 1460 Hugh Fraser became the first Lord Lovat or Lord Fraser of Lovat. The chiefs made Beaufort Castle their seat in 1511, and it is still Fraser property today.
A memorable battle arising from a disputed chiefship was between the Frasers of Lovat and the MacDonalds of Clanranald in 1544, which became known as the Battle of the Field of Shirts. It earned this name because in the heat of that day the men fighting had to throw off their heavy plaids and continue to battle in their white shirts.
The romantic name belies the horror on an area of wild marshland alongside Loch Lochy where, of the hundreds of men who came at each other, only five Frasers and eight MacDonalds remained alive. Both the Lovat chief and his son and heir were among the dead and were buried at Beauly Priory.
Despite the costs of that day, the Lovat Frasers multiplied and created many branches, such as Fingask, Reelig and Inverallochy.
A strong Lovat representation was present at Culloden Moor in April 1746, some believe as many as two battalions. After the disaster on the field, the Fraser estates were plundered by Cumberland and his troops. The chief was captured at Loch Morar and taken to London to be beheaded at Tower Hill one year after the Battle.
The Frasers of Lovat later helped in the raising of Highland regiments that saw action across the British Empire, fighting in the American War of Independence, in Quebec, and in the Napoleonic Wars.
In 1899 Lord Lovat raised the Lovat Scouts for service in the Boer War.
The Lovat Scouts went on to win honours in the First World War and during World War 2, led by the then Lord Lovat along with his piper, Bill Millen. They landed on the Normandy beaches on D Day and were part of the dramatic relief of the Pegasus Bridge, a vital strategic position.
Lord Lovat, a much respected and decorated war hero died in 1996 and was buried to the accompaniment of his trusted piper.
Loch Lochy - site of the Battle of the Field of Shirts in 1544
  
Gaelic Name: Friseal   
Motto: Je suis prest (I am ready)
Origin of Name: French fraisse (Strawberry)
Lands:  East Lothian, Aberdeenshire
Pipe Music: Lovat's March

Fraser Clan
History
The origin of the name Fraser is believed to lie with a knight called Frezel from the lordship of La Frezeliere in Anjou, who came to Scotland in the 11th century.
In 1160 the name of Simon Fraser is recorded as the owner of Keith lands in East Lothian, and he gave the church there to Kelso Abbey. Simon became a popular name for Frasers. His grand-daughter became the heiress to the Keith lands and they passed to the family who would adopt Keith as their name.
Oliver Castle and Tweeddale passed to the Frasers until the wars of independence, after which the clan moved north and expanded across the Highlands. During the wars, Sir Simon Fraser fought for Wallace at Rosslyn in 1302, defeating the English. While fighting for Robert the Bruce in 1306 he was captured, and like Wallace, was executed in the cruellest style, being hung and quartered.
The co-heiress of the Earl of Ross was Joanna, and her hand was won by Sir Alexander Fraser of Cowie and Durris in 1375, bringing to the family the lands of Philorth and the castle now called Cairnbulg.
In 1592, Sir Alexander, 8th of Philorth, was given a charter by James VI to the fishing village of Faithlie. He improved the harbour, making the area a thriving town, which soon became a free port and burgh called Fraserburgh.
Fraserburgh was to have had a university but the religious troubles and competition from Aberdeen stemmed the town’s growth. By building Fraserburgh Castle the Laird bankrupted himself, and had to sell the Castle of Philorth. The marriage of Alexander, 9th of Philorth, brought him the title of Lord Saltoun, a title bourne by the Clan Fraser chiefs till today.
The first Lord Fraser was created in 1663 by Charles I, and occurred at a time when the chiefship was disputed by the Frasers from Oliver Castle who had settled in Mar.
It was Andrew Fraser, 1st Lord Fraser, who completed Castle Fraser.

Gaelic Name: Friseal   
Motto:  All my hope is in God
Badge: Yew
Lands:  East Lothian, Aberdeenshire
Origin of Name: French fraisse (Strawberry)
1921 - 2000 Dr. Richard James Lawrence Moore 79 79 Second child.
Dentist
1919 - 1944 Gordon Gwynne Moore 25 25 First child.
Known in the family as "G".
Attended Scotch College.
Studied Law at Melbourne University until he enlisted in the RAAF in 1940.
Flew in WWII from 1942 as a bombardier in B-26 Marauders, on "lend-lease" to a USA squadron stationed in Queensland and New Guinea in the Pacific War.
Later he flew as a bombardier in Beaufort bombers with an RAAF squadron stationed in Perrth, and was killed in a plane crash off the coast of Perth.  Had the rank of Flying Officer at this time.
Engaged to be married to Lieutenant Louise Barr - daughter of Captain & Mrs Barr of Talbot Crescent, Kooyong. Vic.

G's death was very traumatic to the family.  His mother never recovered after this - it tipped her Parkinson's Disease into major decline.  G's fiance was deeply wounded by this too.
G's mother Elsie always said that she could cope if he was killed in battle.  However G had been transferred to "safe duties" flying Beaufort bombers from Perth because he was due shortly to go on leave and get married.  His death from accident not from fighting was much harder for the family to accept.
One good thing came out if this tragedy.  Beaufort bombers were crashing a lot and nobody could work out why.  However the radio operator on G's plane was able to radio back to base just before the plane hit the water that the aeleron was stuck.  As a result this problem was fixed and there were no more Beaufort crashes.

Died childless.

When G was young and living at the family home in Brighton he was great friends with the Demaine family next door, especially Peter.
D. 2008 Isabel Lunt 1954 Andrew Graeme Moore 1949 John Moore School teacher.
Lives near Bendigo, Victoria.
Lois 1984 James Moore 1986 Carina Moore 1902 - 1985 Celia Norris 83 83 Frank Tippin Ballard in his diary written late in life (in the possession of Ralph Ballard) records that:
"Born at 45 Cope Street, Ladywood, England on 20 December 1902
Siblings - Edie, Rose (m. Howard Russell), William (Ted), Phyllis (m. Fred Taylor), Rene (m. Mr. Chapman), Daisy, Leslie, Marjorie, Joseph.
Michael is the son of Rene.  He came to stay with Frank and Celia in Melbourne in 1957, then returned to Birmingham."
Before marrying Frank and emigrating to Australia, she was a lacemaker in Birmingham, England.
They lived for many years on a semi-rural block in Reservoir, Melbourne.
When Frank became sergeant of police at Heidelberg, they lived at the police station.  Frank grew vegetables and milked Daisy the cow, while Celia cleaned the nearby Heidelberg Court House (now the Heidelberg Historical Museum).
1901 - 1980 Frank Tippin Ballard 79 79 Born in Birmingham, England.
Sergeant of police for many years at Heidelberg Police Station, Melbourne, Victoria.
Amateur artist.
In WWI was an engineer with the Royal Flying Corps, servicing Sopwith Pups. 
Joined the RFC in May 1917 when he was 16 - trained as a mechanic.
From April 1918 he was in active service at Cranwell air base, Lincolnshire, and worked on a number of fighter and bomber aircraft when they returned from raids.  The planes he serviced included Sopwith Pups & Camels, DH4's, RE8's, Bristol fighters, Handley Page bombers, and blimps.
Discharged 4 December 1918.
Joined the Coldstream Guards April 1921 - discharged after 3 months as unfit due to pain from flat feet.

Frank met Celia Norris in August 1920 and they married on 7 July 1924 at St. Mark's Church, Ladywood.
Frank and Celia emigrated to Australia on 17 July 1924 on the SS Barrabool, arriving in Melbourne on 7 September 1924. 
Frank became a policeman.
They were subsequently joined by brother Tom and their mother Florence, along with sister Beatrice "Beat" and her husband George Paisley.
Frank and Celia lived for many years in Reservoir when it was only paddocks.  They then lived for a number of years at Heidelberg Police Station in Jika Street, when Frank was police sergeant there. 
When he retired they moved to a house in nearby Mortimer Street, Heidelberg, and then finally to Rosa Street in Lower Templestowe.
In his retirement had an extensive vegetable garden, did carpentry jobs around the home, and did some amateur watercolour painting.

He wrote a diary late in life with his recollections of the family history - this is in the possession of Ralph Ballard.

Note: Frank's great grandfather was a publican who ran the Barrel Inn in Birmingham.

**** From information supplied by Pat Horton of England, Frank Ballard married Celia Norris on 7 July 1924 in Birmingham.  They then emigrated to Australia shortly after.
1879 - 1965 Florence Beatrice Gilbert 86 86 Frank Tippin Ballard in his diary written late in life (in the possession of Ralph Ballard) records that:
"Florence was born at the "Barrel Inn", Great Hampton, Birmingham, England.
After her father's death, her mother remarried to Thomas Foxall.
Florence was then sent to a convent boarding school along with her aunt Rose Tune who was only 1 or 2 years older.
Florence's brothers Edward and Tom Henry did not get on with their stepfather and left home.
Florence married Frank Ballard on 21 May 1899.
They lived in Warwick Road, Tyseley, Birmingham.  Later Florence opened a small mixed grocer's shop in Warwick Road.
Her children were Frank (born 1901), Florence (born 1903 and died aged 15 months), and Tom.
In 1922 she came to Australia with Frank and Celia.  She then spent time living with Frank and Celia, and with Rose Tune and her husband George Paisley."

1877 Frank Ballard Frank Tippin Ballard in his diary written late in life (in the possession of Ralph Ballard) records that:
"Frank was born in 1877 and went to St. John's School in Birchall Street, Deritend. Birmingham, England.
He left school at the age of 14 and worked with Fisher of Lea Street, Deritend, making tin kettles.
At age 17 he lost the fingers of his right hand in a work accident.
He married Florence Beatrice Gilbert on 21 May 1899.
They lived in a flat in North Street, Deritend then moved to 725 "Woodstock Place", Warwick Road, Tyseley, Birmingham.
Their son Frank was born at "Woodstock Place" in 1901.
They then moved to a mixed grocer's shop at 703 Warwick Road - which Florence ran.  Frank senior still worked at Fisher's.
Florence was born at the shop in Warwick Road, in 1903 but died at 15 montths old."
Frank Ballard senior emigrated to Australia on 21 February 1924 on the SS. Beltana.

Pat Horton of England records that the 1911 census shows Frank and Florence Ballard resident at 731 Warwick Road, Tyseley, Birmingham.

Paul Ballard (website - http://www.paul-ballard.com/) records that:
"Frank4 Ballard was born in Jun 1877 at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.57 He appeared on the census of 3 Apr 1881in the household of Henry Ballard and Clara Benton at 1 H 18 CT Rea Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.58 He appeared on the census of 5 Apr 1891 in the household of Clara Benton at 101 Rea Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.59 He married Florence Beatrice Gilbert in Jun 1899 at Aston Registration District, Warwickshire, England.60 He and Florence Beatrice       Gilbert appeared on the census of 31 Mar 1901 at 6 Deritend  Terrace, Little Anne Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.61

Endnotes:
57. 3 April 1881 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG11 The National Archive.  [.....];General Record Office Register, Frank Ballard; Jun Qtr 1877; Birmingham; Volume: 6d Page: 122.  [2.11.].

58. 3 April 1881 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG11, RG11/2985 folio 21 page 36.  [33333].

59. 5 April 1891 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG12, RG12/2382 folio 126 page 49.  [3.333].

60. unknown author, General Record Office Register, Frank Ballard; Jun Qtr 1899; Aston; Volume: 6d Page: 498.  [2211.].

61. Frank Ballard; head; married; aged 23; Millwright; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Florence Ballard; wife; married; aged 22; born Birmingham, Warwickshire;
31 March 1901 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG13, RG13/2837 folio 129 page 36.  [33333].




1920 - 1994 Tom Henry Ballard 74 74 RAAF "courier" during WWII and served in the occupation forces in Japan after WWII.
Also worked as an operative for Australia's intelligence service - this was confirmed when the head of ASIO, Brigadier Spry attended Tom's funeral. 
Never married, but late in life had a happy de facto relationship with Elsie, while living on a property beside the George's River, outside Sydney, NSW.
Emma de Port Heiress of Semar by Scarborough Alan Baron de Percy Alan Baron de Percy - second baron. Emma de Gaunt Daughter of Gilbert de gaunt Baron of Folkingham, grand-daughter of Baldwin Count of Flanders D. 1133 William Baron de Percy William Baron de Percy - third baron Alice de Ros Daughter of Everard Baron de Ros 1134 - 1205 Anna de Percy 71 71 Also known as Agnes de Percy.
Co heir of her father William de Percy. Baroness de Percy.
Married Josceline de Louvaine

Synopsis
The Percies, who hailed from the village of Perce in Normandy, had large estates in Yorkshire, bestowed by the Conqueror on the first of the name to arrive in England in his train. The family, however, was represented by an heiress only in the reign of Henry II, whose second wife, a daughter of the Duke of Brabant, thought this heiress, with her wide possessions, a suitable match for her own young half-brother Joceline of Louvain. The marriage took place; and thereafter followed the long line of Henry Percies (Henry being a favourite name of the Counts of Louvain) who played such a large part in the history of both England and Scotland; for, as nearly every Percy was a Warden of the Marches, Scottish doings concerned them more or less intimately - indeed, often more so than English affairs.

It was the third Henry Percy who purchased Alnwick Castle in 1309 from Antony Bec, Bishop of Durham and guardian of the last De Vesci, and from that time the fortunes of the Percies, though they still held their Yorkshire estates, were linked permanently with the little town on the Aln, and the fortress which commanded and defended it. The fourth Henry Percy began to build the castle as we see it now; but to call him "the fourth" is a little confusing, as he was the second Henry Percy, Lord of Alnwick. On the whole, it will be clearer to begin the enumerations of the various Henry Percies from the time they became Lords of Alnwick. It was, then, Henry Percy the second, Lord of Alnwick, who began the re-building of the castle; he also was jointly responsible for the safety of the realm during the absence of Edward III in the French wars, and in this official capacity he helped to win the battle of Neville's Cross. His son, Henry Henry, married a sister of John of Gaunt, and their son, the next Henry Percy, was created Earl of Northumberland, which title he was given after the coronation of Richard II. Nor was this all, for he was that Northumberland whose doings in the next reign fill so large a part of Shakespeare's Henry IV, and he was the father of the most famous Percy of all, Henry Percy the fifth, better known as "Harry Hotspur." Hotspur never became Earl of Northumberland, being slain at Shrewsbury in the lifetime of his father, whose estates were forfeited under attainder on account of the rebellion of himself and his son against King Henry IV.

Henry V restored Hotspur's son, the second Earl, to his family honours, and the Percies were staunch Lancastrians during the Wars of the Roses which followed, the third Earl and three of his brothers losing their lives in the cause. The fifth Earl was a gorgeous person whose magnificence equalled, almost, that of royalty. Henry Percy, the sixth Earl of Northumberland, loved Ann Boleyn, and was her accepted suitor before Henry VIII unfortunately discovered the lady's charm, and interfered such that Percy lost his prospective bride. He had no son, although married later to the daughter of the Earl of Shrewsbury, and his nephew, Thomas Percy, became the seventh Earl.

Thereafter, a succession of plots and counterplots - the Rising of the North, the plots to liberate Mary Queen of Scots, and the Gunpowder Plot - each claimed a Percy among their adherents. On this account the eighth and ninth Earls spent many years in the Tower, but the tenth Earl, Algernon, fought for King Charles in the Civil War, the male line of the Percy-Louvain house ending with Josceline, the eleventh Earl. The heiress to the vast Percy estates married the Duke of Somerset; and her grand-daughter married a Yorkshire knight, Sir Hugh Smithson, who in 1766 was created the first Duke of Northumberland and Earl Percy, and it is their descendants who now represent the famous old house.

From wikipedia online encyclopedia
1121 - 1180 Joscelin de Louvain 59 59 Jocelin, Count of Louvain, came to England and married Agnes de Percy, heiress of the Percy family. Their children took their mother's name, and their descendants include the medieval Earls of Northumberland.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adeliza_of_Louvain"

Joscelin of Louvain (1121–1180) was a Brabantian nobleman who married an English heiress, Agnes de Percy, and settled in England. He took the name Percy.
Joscelin was given lands at Petworth, by William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel. William d'Aubigny had married Adeliza of Louvain, Joscelin’s half-sister, and widow of Henry I of England.

He was a son of Godfrey I of Leuven either of Godfrey's second wife Clementia of Burgundy or of a mistress of his father.

Joscelin and Agnes had at least seven children:
- Henry de Percy
- Richard de Percy (died 1244), who was a Magna Carta surety
- Joscelin
- Radulph, went to France
- Eleanor
- Maud (born c. 1164, date of death unknown), married John de Daiville
- Lucy

The Percy estate was divided between William, son of Henry, and his brother Richard.

Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joceline_of_Louvain

Ida Of Namur Daughter of Otto II, Count of Chiny and Adelaide of Namur.  (wikipedia encyclopedia)


1074 - 1139 Godfrey de Babartus Duke of Lorraine 65 65 Godfrey was descended from Count Giselbert, ruler of the Maasgau province (Belgium).

Count of Louvain.
Also became Duke of Brabant after the Counts of Louvain acquired the duchy of Lower Lorraine with the death of Godfrey of Bouillon in 1095.

Godfrey of Louvain

Godfrey I, Duke of Lower Lorraine (1074 - 25 January 1139) was born in Lorraine, France.

He was the son of Henry II, Count of Lorraine and Adelaid of Orlamuda, daughter of Count Eberhard. He married Ida, daughter of Otto II, Count of Chiny and Adelaide of Namur.

Godfrey and Ida had children Adeliza, of Louvain (b. 1103-23 Apr. 1151), who married firstly, Henry I, King of England and secondly William D'Aubigny (1109-12 Oct. 1176); and Godfrey II Count of Louvain (d. 1143), who married Luitgarde of Sultzbach, daughter of Berenger I, Count of Sultzbach.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godfrey_of_Louvain"
Adela de Thuringia Also known as Adelaid of Orlamuda, daughter of Count Eberhard of Namur Henry II Count de Louvaine Count of Louvaine and Brabant.
Lambert II Count de Louvaine Count of Louvaive and Brabant Gerberga Heir of Louvaine Heir of Brabant and Louvaine Lambert I Count of Louvaine Count of Louvaine and Brabant by marriage. Adelhied Countess Louvaine 0952 - 0993 Charles Duke of Louvaine 41 41 Charles of Lorraine (953-993) was the son of King Louis IV of France and Gerberga. Having been excluded from the throne of France, Charles became Duke of Lower Lorraine. While waging war for the French throne, with his cousin, Hugh Capet, Charles was taken prisoner and was confined until his death in 993. Charles married Adelheid. Among their children were Gerberga of Lorraine, who married Lambert I; and Ermengarde of Lorraine, who married Albert I, Count of Namur.

0914 - 0984 Gerberga Gerberga 70 70 Daughter of Henry The Fowler - Emperor of Germany 0920 - 0954 Louis IV King of France 34 34 Carolingian King of France 936 to 954, member of the Carolingian dynasty.

Louis IV d'Outremer: King of France 936 to 954, member of the Carolingian dynasty.

Born September 10, 920 at Laon, Aisne, France, the son of King Charles III and Princess Eadgifu of England.

He was only three years old when his mother took him "over the sea" to the safety of England after his father was imprisoned, hence the nickname Transmarinus.

Originally known as Giselbert Duke of Lorraine, thern later crowned as King Louis IV of France.

On the death of his father in 936, Louis was summoned back to France and crowned king. Effectively, his sovereignty was limited to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a keenness beyond his years in obtaining the recognition of his authority by his feuding nobles. Nonetheless, his reign was filled with conflict in particular with Hugh the Great, count of Paris.

In 939 Louis became involved in a struggle with the Emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, but then married Otto's sister Gerberge (914 - May 5, 984), Princess of Germany and they had two sons and a daughter:

Lothair, (941-986) Western Frankish King
Charles, (954-986) Duke of Lower Lorraine
Mathilde
King Louis IV died September 10, 954 at Reims, Marne, France and is interred there at Saint-Remi Cathedral. He was succeeded by his son Lothair.

King of Western Francia

Preceded by:
Raoul Succeeded by:
Lothair

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_IV_of_France"

0832 - 0888 Charles The Fat King of France 56 56 Carolingian King of France 898 to 922.
King of West Franks.

Charles the Fat (in French: Charles le Gros) (c. 832 - January 13, 888) was a King of France and, as Charles III, Holy Roman Emperor. He was the son of Louis the German. Granted lordship over Swabia in 876, he became King of Italy in 879 upon the abdication of his older brother Carloman. Crowned Emperor in 881, his succession to the Kingdom of Saxony the following year reunited the entire Kingdom of the East Franks (Germany). Upon the death of Carloman, the King of the West Franks (France), on December 12, 884, he achieved that throne as well, thus reviving, if only briefly, the entire Carolingian Empire, aside from Burgundy.

His rise to power was accompanied by hopes of a general revival in western Europe, but he proved unequal to the task. Lethargic and inept - he is known to have had repeated illnesses which are believed to have been epilepsy - he conducted several unsuccessful expeditions in Italy against Saracen incursions, and purchased peace with Viking raiders in Paris in 886.

Increasingly seen as spineless and incompetent, matters came to a head in late 887, when an ambitious nephew, Arnulf, fomented a general rebellion and seized Germany in November. Charles did nothing to prevent the move and, retiring to Neidingen, died two months later, on January 13, 888. His empire broke asunder, never to be restored - Arnulf retained Germany and Lotharingia, France was gained by Odo, Count of Paris, Italy by Berengar of Friuli, Upper Burgundy by Rudolph and Provence by Louis the Blind.

King of Swabia
Also Holy Roman Emperor

Preceded by: Louis II
Succeeded by: Arnulf

Louis III King of Saxony
Carloman of Bavaria
King of Bavaria
King of Italy
Berengar
Carloman of France
King of Western Francia
Odo

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_the_Fat"


Ansgarde of Burgundy First wife of Louis II 0846 - 0879 Louis II King of France 33 33 Carolingian King of France 877 to 879.
Known as Louis The Stammerer.

Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846  - April 10, 879), also known as Louis II and Louis le Begue, was the son of Charles I and Ermentrude of Orléans.

He married three wives and had four children. He and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons, Louis III and Carloman, both of whom were Kings of France. With his second wife, Adelaide Judith of Paris, had one daughter, Ermentrude, Princess of the West Franks. He and his third wife, Luitgrade of Saxony, had one son, Charles III, King of France, King of West Franks.

Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had almost no impact on politics. On his death his realms were divided between two of his sons, Carloman and Louis III.

  This biography of a European noble is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_II_of_France&action=edit).

Preceded by:
Charles II King of Western Francia Succeeded by:
Louis III

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_II_of_France"
D. 0869 Ermentrude Of Orleans Daughter of Odo, Count of Orleans and his wife Ermentrude, whom Charles II married in 842 0823 - 0877 Charles II King of France 54 54 Carolingian King of France 840 to 877.
Known as Charles The Bald.

Charles the Bald (Charles I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles II) (823-877), Holy Roman Emperor and king of the West Franks, was the son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his second wife Judith. He was born when his elder brothers were already adults who had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a kingdom, first Alemannia (829), then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (839), at the expense of his half-brothers Lothair and Louis led to a rising on the part of these two against the emperor.

The death of the emperor in 840 was the signal for the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the emperor Lothar, and the two allies conquered him at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841. In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated oaths of Strassburg. The war was brought to an end by the treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the western Franks, which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse, the Saône and the Rhone, with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro.

The first years of Charles' reign, up to the death of Lothar I in 855, were comparatively peaceful, and during them was continued the system of "confraternal government" of the sons of Louis the Pious, who had various meetings with one another, at Koblenz (848), at Meerssen (851), and at Attigny (854). In 858, Louis the German, summoned by disaffected nobles to oust Charles, invaded the western Frankish kingdom. Charles' reign was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, and he fled to Burgundy. He was saved only by the help of the bishops, who refused to crown Louis king, and by the fidelity of the Welfs, who were related to his mother, Judith. In 860 he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence, but met with a repulse. On the death of his nephew Lothar II in 869, Charles tried to seize Lothar's dominions, but by the treaty of Meerssen (870) was compelled to share them with Louis the German.
Besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against the incessant rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons. Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë, who inflicted on the king the defeats of Ballon (845) and Juvardeil (851), the Bretons were somewhat successful. Charles also fought against the Normans, who devastated the country in the north of Gaul, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, and even up to the borders of Aquitaine. Charles was several times compelled to purchase their retreat at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders, and tried to put a barrier in their way by having fortified bridges built over all the rivers.

In 875, after the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis II (son of his half-brother Lothair), Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, descended into Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial crown at Rome (December 29). Louis the German, who was also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself for Charles's success by invading and devastating his dominions. Charles was recalled to Francia, and after the death of Louis the German (August 28, 876), in his turn made an attempt to seize his kingdom, but at Andernach met with defeat (October 8, 876). In the meantime, John VIII, who was menaced by the Saracens, continued to urge Charles to come to Italy. After having taken at Quierzy the necessary measures for safeguarding the government of his dominions in his absence, Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition had been received with small enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by Boso, Charles's brother-in-law, who had been entrusted by him with the government of Lombardy, and they refused to come with their men to join the imperial army. At the same time Carloman, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, and died while crossing the pass of the Mont Cenis on the 5th or 6th of October 877.

Charles was succeeded by his son, Louis, the child of Ermentrude, daughter of Odo, Count of Orleans and his wife Ermentrude, whom Charles had married in 842, and who had died in 869. In 870 Charles had married Richilde, who was descended from a noble family of Lorraine, but none of the children whom he had by her played a part of any importance. Charles seems to have been a prince of education and letters, a friend of the church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors for preference from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens, who betrayed him, or of Hincmar of Reims.

King of Western Francia
Also Holy Roman Emperor

Preceded by:
Louis I
Succeeded by:
Louis II


Judith of Bavaria 0778 - 0840 Louis I King of France 62 62 Carolingian King of France 814 to 840.
Known as Louis The Pious.

Louis the Pious (also known as Louis I, Louis the Fair and Louis the Debonaire, German form: Ludwig der Fromme, French form: Louis le Pieux or Louis le Débonnaire, Spanish form: Ludovico Pío) (April 16, 778 - June 20, 840) was Emperor and King of the Franks from 814 to 840.

Born in Casseuil-sur-Garonne, in today's Gironde, France, the second son of Charlemagne, Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine as a child and sent there with regents and a court to rule in order to quiet rebellions which were forming after Charlemagne's defeat by the Moors in Spain.

When Charlemagne's other sons Pepin (810) and Charles (811) died, he was crowned co-emperor with Charlemagne in 813. On his father's death in 814, he inherited the entire Frankish kingdom and all its possessions. He was crowned emperor by Pope Stephen V in Reims in 816. Louis used Benedict of Aniane, a Septimanian Visigothic nobleman and monastic founder to help him reform the Frankish church. One of Benedict's primary reforms was to ensure that all religious houses in Louis' realm adhered to the Rule of St Benedict, named for its creator, Benedict of Nursia (AD 480-550).

Like most Frankish men Louis, who was the second son of Charlemagne, expected to share his inheritance with his brothers Charles the Younger and Pepin. However, both of them died before he did - Charles in battle and Pepin subsequent to his blinding and confinement after joining in a revolt against his father - and Louis inherited the Frankish empire intact.

Shortly after his accession, he secured his position as emperor in a "moral purge," in which he sent all of his illegitimate half-brothers to monasteries and all of his unmarried sisters to nunneries. In 817, his nephew Bernard, King of Italy, rebelled against his overlordship, and after suppressing the rebellion, he had Bernard blinded and imprisoned. Bernard died the next year. As a deeply religious man, however, Louis wanted to make penance for causing Bernard's death, and did so at Attigny in 822, in front of the nobles of the realm. This act greatly reduced his prestige as a ruler.

In 817, Louis laid out plans for an orderly succession by dividing the empire between his three sons from his first marriage with Ermengarde: Lothar (who was crowned king of Italy and co-emperor), Pepin of Aquitaine (king of Aquitaine) and Louis the German (king of Bavaria). After Ermengarde's death, he remarried with Judith of Bavaria and had a fourth son, Charles, in 823. Louis' attempts to add Charles to his will met with the stiff resistance of his older sons, and the last decade of his reign was marked by civil war. In 829, he stripped Lothar of his position of co-emperor and banished him to Italy. In 830, the three brothers invaded their father's lands, forcing him to abdicate in favor of Lothar. Louis the Pious returned to power the next year and stripped Lothar not only of imperial title, but also of the kingdom of Italy, which he bestowed on Charles. Pepin revolted, followed by Louis the German in 832, and Lothar, with the support of Pope Gregory IV, joined the revolt in 833. The brothers defeated their father and imprisoned him along with Charles. Judith was sent to a nunnery, while Pepin and Louis the German both annexed formerly imperial lands. In 835, however, the family made peace and restored Louis to the imperial throne.

When Pepin died in 838, Louis the Pious declared Charles the new king of Aquitaine. The nobles, however, elected Pepin's son Pepin II. When Louis died in 840, the dispute plunged the brothers into a civil war that was only settled in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun (843) which split the Frankish realm into three parts, the kernels of later France and Germany. The dispute over the kingship of Aquitaine was not fully settled until 860.

Frankish King
Also Holy Roman Emperor

Preceded by:
Charlemagne
Succeeded by:
Charles II, Lothar and Louis II
0758 - 0783 Hildegard of Savoy 25 25 Daughter of Gerald I of Savoy, Count of Vinzgouw and Imma (Emma) of Allemania.
Third wife of Charlemagne married about 771.
0747 - 0814 Emperor Charlemagne 67 67 Holy Roman Emperor.
King of the Franks.

Charlemagne (c. 742 or 747 - 28th of January, 814) (or Charles the Great, in German Karl der Große, in Latin Carolus Magnus, giving rise to the adjective form "Carolingian"), was king of the Franks from 771 to 814, nominally King of the Lombards, and Holy Roman Emperor - Imperator and Augustus.

Date of birth
Up until the mid-20th century, Charlemagne's birthday was believed to be the 1st of April, 742, but several factors led to reconsideration of this traditional date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than attested with primary sources. The second problem is that 742 precedes the marriage of his parents (in 744), yet there is no indication that Charlemagne was a bastard, and he inherited from his parents which ought not to have been possible under those circumstances. Another date is that given in the Annales Petarienses, the 2nd of April, 747. In that year, the 1st of April is Easter. Since the birth of an Emperor on Easter is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, there is suspicion evoked by the fact that there is no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that the birth was one year later, 748. So at present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include the 1st of April, 747, after the 15th of April, 747, or the 1st of April, 748.

Life
Arguably the founder of the Frankish Empire in Western Europe, Charlemagne was the elder son of Pepin the Short (714 - 24th of September, 768, reigned 751 - 768) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 - 12th of July, 783); he was the brother of the Lady Bertha mother of Roland and later became the first Carolingian king.

Pepin the Short indulged in the monopoly of the coining of money, deciding on the opening and closure of minting shops, the weight, title and the subjects represented. Thus, European coinage began with Pippin, who revived the system put in place by the ancient Greeks and Romans and kept going by the Eastern Roman Empire (1 libra = 240 denarii).
On the death of Pepin the kingdom was divided between Charlemagne and his brother Carloman (Carloman ruled Austrasia). Carloman died on the 5th of December, 771, leaving Charlemagne the leader of a reunified Frankish kingdom. Charlemagne was engaged in almost constant battle throughout his reign. He conquered Saxony in the 8th century, a goal that had been the unattainable dream of Augustus. It took Charlemagne more than 18 battles to win this victory. He proceeded to force Catholicism on the conquered, slaughtering those who refused to convert. He dreamed of the reconquest of Spain, but never fully succeeded in this goal.

In 800, at Mass on Christmas day in Rome, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, a title that had been out of use in the West since the abdication of Romulus Augustulus in 476. While this title helped to make western Europe independent of Constantinople, Charlemagne did not use the title until much later, as he feared it would create dependence on the Pope.
Pursuing his father's reforms, Charlemagne did away with the monetary system based on the gold sou. Both he and King Offa of Mercia took up the system set in place by Pippin. He set up a new standard, the livre (i.e. pound) - both monetary and unit of weight - which was worth 20 sous (like the solidus, and later the shilling) or 240 deniers (like the denari, and eventually the penny). During this period, the livre and the sou were counting units, only the denier was a coin of the realm.
Charlemagne applied the system to much of the European Continent, and Offa's standard was voluntarily adopted by much of England.
When Charlemagne died in 814, he was buried in his own Cathedral at Aachen. He was succeeded by his only son to survive him, Louis the Pious, after whose reign the empire was divided between his three surviving sons according to Frankish tradition. These three kingdoms would be the foundations of later France and the Holy Roman Empire.
After Charlemagne's death, continental coinage degraded and most of Europe resorted to using the continued high quality English coin until about 1100.
It is difficult to understand Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters. None of them contracted a sacramental marriage. This may have been an attempt to control the number of potential alliances. After his death the surviving daughters entered or were forced to enter monasteries. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognized relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert, a member of Charlemagne's court circle.

Cultural significance
Charlemagne's reign is often referred to as the Carolingian Renaissance because of the flowering of scholarship, literature, art and architecture. Most of the surviving works of classical Latin were copied and preserved by Carolingian scholars. The pan-European nature of Charlemagne's influence is indicated by the origins of many of the men who worked for him: Alcuin, an Anglo-Saxon; Theodulf, a Visigoth; Paul the Deacon, a Lombard; and Angilbert and Einhard, Franks. Charlemagne enjoyed an important afterlife in European culture. One of the great medieval literature cycles, the Charlemagne cycle or Matter of France, centres around the deeds of Charlemagne's historical commander of the Breton border, Roland, and the paladins who served as a counterpart to the knights of the Round Table; their tales were first told in the chansons de geste. Charlemagne himself was accorded sainthood inside the Holy Roman Empire after the 12th Century. He was a model knight as one of the Nine Worthies.
It is frequently claimed by genealogists that all people with European ancestry alive today are probably descended from Charlemagne. However, only a small percentage can actually prove descent from him. Charlemagne's marriage and relationship politics and ethics did, however, result in a fairly large number of descendants, all of whom had far better life expectancies than is usually the case for children in that time period. They were married into houses of nobility and as a result of intermarriages many people of noble descent can indeed trace their ancestry back to Charlemagne.
Another interesting note about Charlemagne was that he took a serious effort in his and others' scholarship and had learnt to read in his adulthood, although he never quite learnt how to write. This was quite an achievement for Kings at this time, who mostly were illiterate.

Charlemagne's portraits
The Roman tradition of realistic personal portraiture was in complete eclipse at the time of Charlemagne, where individual traits were submerged in iconic typecastings. Charlemagne, as an ideal ruler, ought to be portrayed in the corresponding fashion, any contemporary would have assumed. The images of enthroned Charlemagne, God's representative on Earth, bear more connections to the icons of Christ in Majesty than to modern (or Antique) conceptions of portraiture. Even the verbal portrait by Einhard suppresses details that would have been indecorous in this context. Charlemagne in later imagery (illustration above) is often portrayed with flowing blond hair, due to a misunderstanding of Einhart's Vita caroli Magni (chapter 22) where Charlemagne in his age had canitie pulchra "beautiful white hair" which has been rendered as blond or fair in many translations. The Latin word for blond is "flavus", and "rutilo", meaning 'golden-red' or 'auburn', is the word Tacitus uses for the Germans' hair. Although no text says so, an unfounded perception has nonetheless arisen that Charlemagne was blond.

Wives
Himiltrude
Ermengarda or Desiderata
Hildegard of Savoy (married Abt 771) (758-783)
Fastrada (married 784) (d. 794)
Luitgard (married 794) (d. 800)

Children
Pippin the Hunchback (d. 813)
Charles, King of Neustria (d. 811)
Pippin, King of Italy (ruled 781-810)
Louis I The Pious, King of Aquitaine, Emperor (ruled 814-840)
Lothar (d. 780)
Six Daughters (Hildegarde?, Gisele?, Adelheid?, Bertha?, Lothaire?, Rotrud?)
Aupais ?


1103 - 1151 Queen Adela 48 48 Second wife of Henry I.

Adeliza, of Louvain (b. 1103-23 Apr. 1151), who married firstly, Henry I, King of England and secondly William D'Aubigny (1109-12 Oct. 1176);

On January 29, 1121, King Henry I married Adeliza, daughter of Godfrey, Count of Louvain, but there were no children from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Maud, widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor, as his heir.

Adeliza of Louvain (1103-1151) was queen consort of England from 1121 to 1135, the second wife of King Henry I of England. She was the daughter of a French Count, Godfrey of Louvain.

She married King Henry I in 1121 when she is thought to have been aged somewhere between fifteen and eighteen; he was fifty three. It is believed that Henry's only reason for marrying again was his desire for a male heir. (Despite holding the record for the largest number of illegitimate children of any British monarch, Henry's only legitimate male heir had died in 1120.) Adeliza was reputably quite pretty, and Louvain and England had a mutual enemy in Flanders; these were the likely reasons she was chosen. However, no children were born during the almost 15 years of the marriage.

When her husband died in 1135, Adeliza lived as a nun at Wilton, near Salisbury. As she was still young she came out of mourning some time before 1139 and married William d'Albini, who had been one of Henry's chief advisors. She brought with her a queen's dowry, including the great castle of Arundel, and King Stephen created d'Albini Earl of Arundel. Seven of their children were to survive. Among the descendants of this marriage came two girls destined to become tragic queens; Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. Adeliza spent her final years in Flanders in a convent.

One of Adeliza's brothers, Jocelin, came to England and married Agnes de Percy, heiress of the Percy family. Their children took their mother's name, and their descendants include the medieval Earls of Northumberland.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adeliza_of_Louvain"

ARUNDEL CASTLE
There is nearly 1,000 years of history at this great castle, situated in magnificent grounds overlooking the River Arun in West Sussex and built at the end of the 11th century by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel.
The oldest feature is the motte, an artificial mound, over 100 feet high from the dry moat, and constructed in 1068: followed by the gatehouse in 1070. Under his will, King Henry I (1068-1135) settled the Castle and lands in dower on his second wife, Adeliza of Louvain. Three years after his death she married William d'Albini II, who built the stone shell keep on the motte.  King Henry II (1133-89), who built much of the oldest part of the stone Castle, in 1155 confirmed William d'Albini II as Earl of Arundel, with the Honour and Castle of Arundel.
Apart from the occasional reversion to the Crown, Arundel Castle has descended directly from 1138 to the present day, carried by female heiresses from the d'Albinis to the Fitzalans in the 13th century and then from the Fitzalans to the Howards in the 16th century and it has been the seat of the Dukes of Norfolk and their ancestors for over 850 years. From the 15th to the 17th centuries the Howards were at the forefront of English history, from the Wars of the Roses, through the Tudor period to the Civil War. Among the famous members of the Howard family are the 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443-1524), the victor of Flodden, Lord Howard of Effingham, who with Sir Francis Drake repelled the Armada in 1588, the Earl of Surrey, the Tudor poet and courtier, and the 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1473-1554), uncle of Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, both of whom became wives of King Henry VIII (1491-1547).

These were politically dangerous times: the 'Poet' Earl was executed in 1547; his father, the 3rd Duke of Norfolk only escaped the death penalty because King Henry VIII died the night before the execution was due and the 4th Duke (1536-72) was beheaded for plotting to marry Mary Queen of Scots. There have been two cardinals and a saint in the Howard family; St Philip Howard, 13th Earl of Arundel (1557-95) died in the Tower of London for his faith. By contrast, his son, the 'Collector' 14th Earl (1585-1646), as his nickname suggests, was responsible for many of the treasures which can be seen today.  The results of all this history are concentrated at the Castle, which houses a fascinating collection of fine furniture dating from the 16th century, tapestries, clocks, and portraits by Van Dyck, Gainsborough, Mytens, Lawrence, Reynolds, Canaletto and others. Personal possessions of Mary, Queen of Scots and a selection of historical, religious and heraldic items from the Duke of Norfolk's collection are also on display.

During the Civil War (1642-45), the Castle was badly damaged when it was twice besieged, first by Royalists who took control, then by Cromwell's Parliamentarian force led by William Waller. Nothing was done to rectify the damage until about 1718 when Thomas, the 8th Duke of Norfolk (1683-1732) carried out some repairs. Charles Howard, the 11th Duke (1746-1815), known to posterity as the 'Drunken Duke' and friend of the Prince Regent subsequently carried out further restoration.
1068 - 1135 King Henry I of England 67 67 Henry I (c.1068 - December 1, 1135), called variously Henry Beauclerk, Henri Beauclerc, or Henry Beauclerc because of his scholarly interests, was the third son of William the Conqueror.

His reign as King of England extended from 1100 to 1135, succeeding his brother, William II Rufus. He also was known by the nickname "Lion of Justice", due to the refinements which he brought about in the rudimentary administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

He seized power after the death of William II, which occurred (conveniently) during the absence of his brother Robert Curthose on the Crusades.

His reign is noted for his opportunistic political skills, the aforementioned improvements in the machinery of government, the integration of the divided Anglo-Saxon and Normans within his kingom, his reuniting of the dominions of his father, and his controversial (although well-founded) decision to name his daughter as his heir.

Early life
Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069, probably in Selby, Yorkshire in England. His mother, Queen Matilda of Flanders, named him after her uncle, King Henry I of France. As the youngest son of the family, he was most likely expected to become a bishop and was given extensive schooling for a young nobleman of that time period. William of Malmesbury asserts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate king was a crowned ass. He was probably the first Norman ruler to be fluent in the English language.

His father William, upon his death in 1087, bequeathed his dominions to his sons in the following manner:

Robert received the Duchy of Normandy
William received the Kingdom of England
Henry received 5,000 pounds of silver
Orderic Vitalis reports that King William declared to Henry: "You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power."

Henry played both brothers off against each other. Eventually, wary of his devious manouevring, they acted together and signed an accession treaty which effectively disbarred Henry from either throne, stipulating that if either died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.

Seizing the throne of England
When William II was killed by an arrow whilst hunting on August 2, 1100, however, Robert was returning from the First Crusade. His absence, along with his poor reputation among the Norman nobles, allowed Henry to seize the keys of the royal hoard at Winchester. He was accepted as king by the leading barons and was crowned three days later on August 5 at Westminster. He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement, issuing the Charter of Liberties, which is considered a forerunner of the Magna Carta.

First marriage
On November 11, 1100 Henry married Edith, daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling, the marriage united the Norman line with old English line of kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities, Edith changed her named to Matilda upon becoming queen. The obverse side of this coin however was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.

William of Malmesbury describes Henry thusly: "He was of middle stature, greater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black and set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy."

Conquest of Normandy
The following year in 1101, Robert Curthose attempted to seize back the crown by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton, Robert agreed to recognize Henry as king of England and return peacefully to Normandy, upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.

In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and to obviate the drain on his fiscal resources, Henry led an expeditionary force across the English Channel. In 1106, he decisively defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray in Normandy. He imprisoned his brother, initially in the Tower of London, then subsequently at Devizes castle, and later at Cardiff. Henry appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of England, and reunited his father's dominions.

He attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by marrying his eldest son, William, to the daughter of Fulk of Jerusalem, Count of Anjou and a serious enemy.

Activities as a King
Henry's need for finance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activities of centralised government. As king, Henry carried out social and judicial reforms, including:
issuing the Charter of Liberties &
restoring laws of King Edward the Confessor.
Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a traitorous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, King Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of Ivry, exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutiliate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parlay at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled to his daughter and son-in-law.

Legitimate children
He had two children by Edith-Matilda before her death in 1118: Maud, born February 1102, and William Adelin, born November 1103. Disaster struck when his only legitimate son William Adelin perished in the wreck of the White Ship, on November 25, 1120, off the coast of Normandy. Also among the dead were two of Henry's bastard children, as well as a niece, Lucia-Mahaut de Blois. Henry's grieving was intense, and the succession was in crisis.

Second marriage
On January 29, 1121, he married Adeliza, daughter of Godfrey, Count of Louvain, but there were no children from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Maud, widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor, as his heir.

Death and legacy
Henry visited Normandy in 1135 to see his young grandsons, the children of Maud and Geoffrey. He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarreled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.

Henry died of food poisoning from eating foul lampreys in December, 1135, at St. Denis le Fermont in Normandy and was buried at Reading Abbey, which he himself had founded fourteen years before.

Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter Maud as their queen, Maud's sex and her remarriage to the House of Anjou, an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew Stephen of Boulogne to come to England and claim the throne with popular support.

The struggle between Empress Maud and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as the Anarchy. The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's naming of Maud's son, Henry, as his heir in 1153.

Illegitimate Children
King Henry is famed for holding the record for the largest number of acknowledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number being around 20 or 25. He had many mistresses, and identifying which mistress is the mother of which child is difficult. His illegitimate offspring for whom there is documentation are:

Robert FitzRoy. His mother was probably a member of the Gai family.
Sibylla FitzRoy, married King Alexander I of Scotland. Probably the daughter of Sibyl Corbet.
Reginald FitzRoy. His mother was Sibyl Corbet.
Maud FitzRoy, married Duke Conan III, Duke of Brittany
Richard FitzRoy, perished in the wreck of the White Ship. His mother was Ansfride.
Fulk FitzRoy, a monk at Abingdon. His mother may have been Ansfride.
Juliane FitzRoy, married Eustace de Pacy. She tried to shoot her father with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughters to be blinded. Her mother may have been Ansfride.
Matilda FitzRoy, married Count Rotrou II of Perche, perished in the wreck of the White Ship. Her mother was Edith.
Constance FitzRoy, married Roscelin de Beaumont
Henry FitzRoy, died 1157. His mother was Princess Nest.
Mabel FitzRoy, married William III Gouet
Aline FitzRoy, married Matthieu I of Montmorency
Isabel FitzRoy, daughter of Isabel de Beaumont, sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester.
Matilda FitzRoy, abbess of Montvilliers
Adeliza FitzRoy. Appears in charters with her brother Robert (below), she was probably daughter of Eda FitzForne.
Robert FitzRoy, died 1172. His mother was Eda FitzForne.
William de Tracy, died shortly after King Henry.
Gilbert FitzRoy, died after 1142. His mother may have been a sister of Walter de Gand.

King of England
1100 - 1135

Preceded by:
William II 
Succeeded by:
Stephen
Preceded by:
Robert Curthose Duke of Normandy
1105 - 1135




D. 1118 Edith - Matilda On November 11, 1100 Henry married Edith, daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling, the marriage united the Norman line with old English line of kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities, Edith changed her named to Matilda upon becoming queen. The obverse side of this coin however was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.

D. 1352 Henry 2nd Lord Percy Second Lord Percy of Alnwick (1315 - 1352).  Fought with Edward The Black Prince in France 1347, and for many years against border raids by the Scots.

The Battle of Neville’s Cross in 1346.
Although border warfare was common in the Middle Ages, this battle had its immediate origins in an Anglo/ French dispute in Europe. Two months before the Neville’s Cross battle, in August 1346, an English army, under King Edward III, had defeated a French army at CrÈcy in Northern France. The Scots, commanded by their King, David II, were responding to an appeal from the King of France to create a diversion in Northern England.
The Scottish army crossed the border north of Carlisle and moved down the north bank of the Tyne, taking Hexham and Corbridge. Legend has it that, the night before the fording of the Tyne at Ryton, David had a dream warning him not to invade the territory of Saint Cuthbert. Ignoring this warning, David’s army moved south and encamped at Beaurepaire (Bearpark) outside Durham City. The English had not been idle and troops were gathered at Richmond under Ralph Neville, Henry Percy and the Archbishop of York. The English army advanced to Barnard Castle and then to Bishop Auckland. An English mounted force advancing from Merrington ran into a Scottish raiding party and, in a running battle south of Durham between Thinford and Sunderland Bridge, forced the Scots to retreat with heavy casualties. It is said that this is why the area is now known as Butcher Race.
The night before the battle St Cuthbert is said to have appeared to John Fossor, Prior of the Benedictine Abbey of Durham, and instructed him to take the saint’s banner to the battlefield. Maiden’s Bower is the site at which Prior Fossor and a number of monks spent the battle in prayer. Following the battle a wooden cross was erected on Maiden’s Bower and as the monks made their journeys to and from Beaurepaire they would turn into Flass Vale and offer prayers by the cross. The cross was broken down in the mid-sixteenth century.
On the morning of 17th October, the English army (possibly as few as 5,000 men) was formed up across Crossgate Moor in three divisions, with a reserve contingent held in the rear. The larger Scottish force (possibly 16,000 men) moved out from Beaurepaire and formed up in their three divisions north of Arbour House Farm.
The line of advance of the Scottish right wing under Sir William Douglas took it into this valley where it was hampered by the descent down the steep slopes and the ditches and fences which intersected the land in the valley bottom. Confusion resulted, with the cohesion of the three schiltrons (‘hedgehog-like’ formations of pikes) lost. The Scots also had to climb the slope in front of Sir Thomas Rokeby’s men who were the bulk of the English archers.
The right wing of the English army - the men of Northumberland commanded by Henry Percy. This wing did not have the early success of its counterpart on the left and, as the opposing Scottish troops under Robert Stewart advanced, the English soldiers were forced back by Scottish spears. As Percy’s troops gave ground they kept contact with the English centre and swung back pivoting on their left flank. The advancing Scots then exposed their own left flank to a counter-attack by the English reserve which had been held back behind the line of battle. Under attack Stewart pulled many of his troops back from the field.
The Scots’ centre, under the command of King David, was now exposed by the withdrawal of Stewart’s division on the left and the defeat of Douglas’ division on the right. The English troops closed around the Scottish centre and sheer weight of numbers now began to tell. David’s standard bearer was killed and the King himself was wounded before he was eventually captured by John Copeland. The defeated and leaderless remnants of the Scots army streamed northwards fighting small-scale actions, including one on Findon Hill. King David was taken to a Northumbrian castle for safety and he was eventually handed over to Edward III. He remained in English custody for 11 years and was freed in exchange for a £66,000 ransom which is the equivalent of about £15 million in today’s terms!
After the battle Ralph Neville erected a new cross to commemorate the victory.

Eleanor de Arundle D. 1368 Henry 3rd LordPercy Third Lord Percy of Alnwick (1352 - 1368).
Fought against the French at the Battle of Crecy in 1346.
Took part in Edward III's abortive invasion of Scotland in 1356.
1321 Mary Plantaget D. 1409 Henry 4th Lord Percy - 1st Earl of Northumberland Fourth Lord Percy of Alnwick (1368 - 1409).
First Earl of Northumberland.
Fought with King Edward III against the French in 1359, 1363, 1368 (Calais).  In 1377 commanded the English garrisons in France.
1377-1378 lead a large army against the Scots - repeated battles.
1399 he and his son Hotspur deposed King Richard II of England and put Henry Bolingbroke on the throne as Henry IV (see Shakespeare's Henry IV).
1403 - the Rising of the Percys - Henry and his son Hotspur rose against Henry IV at the Battle of Shrewsbury where Hotspur was killed.  Henry surrended but was pardoned.
1404 Henry again rebellled, this time with the Archbishop of York, but yielded to King Henry's cannons.
Henry then took refuge in Scotland and conspired with Owen Glendower.
1409 was Henry's last uprising against Henry IV - Henry Percy was defeated and killed at Branham Moor.

Northumbria (Northumberland in English) was originally the Anglian kingdom between the Humber and the Tweed. Its western boundary varied substantially, and at one time it included part of the Lothians in Scotland, but we may consider it today as it is shown here on the map, with the southern portion (less densely purple) having been lost to the Danish invasion and settlement in the 9th century, but reintegrated with the northern portion by Siward the Dane.
The design of a flag for this territory should be heraldically lawful, easily distinguished from others, aesthetically pleasing, and relevant to the history of Northeastern England.
About 925 A.D. the king ruling the northern portion of Northumbria from Bamborough Castle accepted the overlordship of the Saxon kings then unifying what would become the Kingdom of England. Since then, apart from those few years when some of the territory was ruled from Scotland, Northumbria has been part of England. A new flag should recognise this, and could use the most obvious emblem ~ the red cross of St George.
What then might be included to distinguish the new flag from that of England? Suggestions of a whippet and a pigeon are, of course, facetious, and no suitable modern symbol that might represent the whole area springs readily to mind. Does history offer something?   
The early rulers of Northumberland, such as Siward (who died at York in 1055 A.D.) and his successors, held sway over the whole area marked on the map, but there is no surviving heraldry associated with their names. From 1095 A.D. to 1377 A.D., apart from five years when the Bishop of Durham held it in return for funding Richard I's crusade, it was held by the royal houses of either England or Scotland, but in 1377 the Earldom of Northumberland was granted to Henry de Percy, whose ducal descendants still hold it today.  
The Percy arms might thus have been considered as a possibility for inclusion, but there is another candidate of probably greater merit. Agnes de Percy, an early coheiress, married about 1155 A.D. Jocelin de Louvain, and their descendants kept the Percy name but, before 1377 when the earldom was granted, gave precedence to the Louvain arms over their own pronominal arms. This precedence has over the centuries caused the blue Louvain lion to be associated directly with the earldom (later the dukedom), while the Percy arms remain linked to the surname. (The Bruce family in Yorkshire, kinsmen of King Robert the Bruce, married into the Percy family, also bore a blue lion, but on a silver field instead of gold.)
D. 1372 Margaret de Neville 1403 Harry Hotspur Percy Henry Percy fought alongside his father and distinguished himself in battle time and again. 
He first fought at Berwick Castle against the Scots in 1378 aged only 12 - here he received the name "Hotspur".
1388 fought at the Battle of Otterburn.  He personally led a night attack against the Scots, with his brother Ralph, but was totally defeated.
1399 - Hotspur took part with his father in deposing Richard II and installing Henry IV on the English throne.
1399 to 1402 - frequent battles against the Scots led by Douglas (?the Black Douglas) until Hotspur defeated them totally at Homildon Hill.
1403 - Rising of the Percys (see Shakespeare's "Henry IV") where Hotspur was killed at the Battle Of Shrewsbury on July 21.
Elizabeth Mortimer Descendant of Edward III - he was her great grandfather. D. 1455 Henry 2nd Earl Second Earl of Northumberland (1414 - 1455).
Captured by English privateers while on a ship to France with James, son of the King of Scotland.  He was then held in Windsor Castle and became a close friend of Henry Prince of Wales, who later became King Henry V.  As a result in 1414 the honours and estates lost at the Battle of Bramham Moor in 1409 were reinstated to Henry Percy, and he became the Second Earl of Northumberland.
He was appointed General Warden of the Marches whenever Henry V or later Henry VI were absent in France on battle campaigns.
Led campaigns against the Scots in 1436 and 1448.
In 1452 the Wars of the Roses began.  Henry sided with the House of Lancaster, but was killed at the first battle of the wars at St. Albans in 1455.
Ralph de Percy In 1388 he led the fight against the Scots with his brother Hotspur at the disastrous Battle of Otterburn. 1112 - 1168 William 4th Baron de Percy 56 56 William Baron de Percy - fourth baron.
Last apparent male heir of the direct male line - latterly proven incorrect
Adeliza de Tunbrigg Daughter of Richard 3rd Earl de Clare. 1st wife of William de Percy. Second wife of William de Percy William de Percy Abbot of Whitby 1015 1010 Geffrey de Percy Knight in the Norman village of             de Perci  (Normandy, France).

THE HOUSE OF PERCY
The House of Percy has a special place in English history and from here you will be able to find descriptions and explanations of the events and influences surrounding this most Noble family and some of its more interesting and sometimes infamous characters.
The Percies settled permanently in England from Normandy in the 11th century. Since then their charm, battle prowess and presumed notoriety has indelably marked and coloured the fabric of English history, a history that today a thousand years later is still so very much alive.
These Percy chapters reveal scenes of valour, conflict, love and religious fervour which have all auguably made a lasting impression. Whether on the landscape of Northumberland or from within the corridors of power at Court, the blood and glory of their conflicts is remembered by some of the fiercest battles ever to be fought on English soil. The Percies keeness to fight and their skill in battle was permanently etched into their makeup, it was almost as though the neccessity to protect their hard won lands, honour and power had embedded itself in their blood and it was their fierce protection and control of the Northern border with Scotland that brought them such a an envious reputation.
But their winning mood was soon to change and focus on the avaricious and jealously motivated desires of the Crown whose courtly machinations were to eventually claim its victim. The Percies were by now one of the most powerful families in England and virtually ruled the North as their own principality. They were forced though to react to these threats in a manner that was foreign to every ounce of their character. For to fight with politics and words was not a Percy way and their attempts at matching the cunning methods of their witful protaganists became their bette noir, from which they eventually paid so dearly by attainder, confisaction, imprisonment and the executioners axe.
The irony in all of this too was that the Percies were as Royal and Noble as the rulers who manifested themselves so cleverly over them, those who were directly responsible for their cousins fate. For through the Percies veins ran the very same Royal blood which gave them their inimitable right to the Crown of England, the Crown they so very nearly won.
So all this too, might tell you how they tenaciously held onto it all against the most extreme and tremendous odds, as this proud family undaunted by the fiercest of odds clawed back, maintained, sustained to grow back their power until today when the ancient banner of their most fascinating heritage can still be seen flying proudly from their magnificent castle at Alnwick in Northumberland.

"Esperance en Dieu "
The Percy family motto 'Hope in God'

THE PERCIES FROM NORMANDY
From about the 17th century it was thought (and recorded by scholars at that time) that in about the mid 800's AD the Percy family came to North Western France, as invading Viking pirates when accompanying their cheiftain and leader Rollo. It has been written that one of Rollo's captains, a grand man named Mainfred was given land and titles as a part of that granted to Rollo by the French Crown in an area called Auge around the village of Perci in what is now known as Normandy, and made it his home. Mainfred was consequently named as the originator of the Percy family.
The native French called these invaders Normans, or men from the North. The village of Perci had already been named by Roman conquerers some centuries earlier, whose legion had settled here after their recently completed campaign in Persia. Hence the colonists derived the name Perci from the word Persia-cum (from Persia). At the time of the Norman invasion the custom of surnames was almost unknown. It was only when the Viking victors hired the expert agricultuists from Flanders to make the barren land of Normandy good did they learn of the noble art of the surname. The Noble Flemish family's who were given land in exchange for expertise brought their heritage with them and so the title holder who gained the lands around the village of Perci was to be known from whence he lived - de Perci.
The acknowledged and recognised link to the Percy family's history before their arrival in Normandy is all to do with the bearing of their arms. This is reflected in the actual coat that was used by the family as can be seen from the Norman charters of the time which are still in existence today.
The Normans did not use heraldy at this time but the Percy family certainly did. They bore a coat then (as shown above), which can be traced to those previously used by the Aristocratic families who inhabited the region to the North of France known as Flanders.
That the Baronial family of Percy took their name from their fiefdom in Normandy is also true but the notion of their Viking ancestry and that of being of Norman heritage has at best been displayed as a fashionably romantic idea.
What follows here is a description kindly offered by Baronage Press Magazine, an online authority on such matters who have spent much time and effort researching this very same subject in some detail.
"The known marital alliances of the Percies during the centuries succeeding, shouts aloud their Flemish origin. The arms used by the Percies in the late 11th century are not Norman (for the Normans, unlike the Flemings, then had no heraldry), and in accordance with the manner in which early heraldic symbolism operated strongly suggest a connection with Bethune (a few miles west of Lille in what was then the county of Flanders).
That the western part of Normandy had in the middle of the 11th century a strong representation of the Flemish aristocracy tends to be overlooked by those English writers who have not examined the "Norman" charters of the period. This is especially true of the Cotentin peninsular, a desolate area of infertile ground that had been a French princess's dowry when she married Baldwin of Flanders. (It had previously appeared to be Norman, because Duke Richard III had received it as that same princess's dowry when he was supposed to marry her, and had returned it to her when the marriage failed to proceed.) Baldwin populated the area with Flemings who knew from their own experience in northern Flanders just how such a bleak coastal area could be defended militarily and exploited agriculturally, and it is from this heritage that such great families as Bruce, Ferrers, Haig, Hay, Mandeville, Morville, Percy and Vere emerged, most taking their names from their Norman fiefs (and their arms from their origins in Greater Flanders)".
The village of Percy en Auge is still in existence, as is another village of the same name in the Department of Calvados nearby. French relatives of the English Percies are also still to be found in this region today.

PERCY ANCESTORS

Galfred de Perci.

Geoffrey de Perci.

William de Perci.

Geoffrey de Perci.

Alan de Percy.

Baron William de Perci ( Algersnons), had brothers Serlo and Picot de Percy

The next we know is that Edward the confessor, King of England (circa 1040) hired Alan de Percy of Normandy to assist him in defending England, North of the Humber against the invading Vikings. But when Harold became King he was suspicious of the connection between Alan de Percy and Duke William of Normandy and expelled Alan from England. A son was born to Alan de Perci near Alnwick before 1066.

William de Perci was wild and adventurous and wore a beard(which was apparently unusual at this time). For this he was known as Al-gers-nons (meaning with whiskers) and the name of Algernon has followed the Percy race to this very day.
There does not seem to be any proof that William de Percy was with William the Conquerer at the battle of Hastings in 1066. In fact it seems that William (Algernon) de Percy arrived in England in 1067 to assist the Conquerer mop up remaining resistance in Yorkshire and shore up the defences against the threat from Scotland and from the possibility of Viking invasion. For his trouble William de Percy was given knights fees and land, initially under Earl Hugh of Chester. By 1086 William's family including brothers Serlo and Picot is charted as owning various estates in Yorkshire and the surrounding counties.



1035 Serlo de Percy Prior of Whitby Picot de Percy Was a tennant of William de Percy at Bolton upon Dearne. Picot was the donor of the church at Bolton Percy to Nostell Priory. This is confirmed by his son Robert and grandson William.
1026 Alan de Percy From the village de Perci Normandy France. Assisted Edward the confessor King of England (circa 1040) defend the North of England (north of the Humber ) against the Vikings. He was banished from England by a suspicious King Harold who surmised that he might be a spy for William Duke of Normandy.
A son was born to Alan de Perci near Alnwick before 1066
Walter de Percy Died childless. D. 1244 Richard de Percy Died childless.
RICHARD DE PERCY -  A feudal baron of Yorkshire d. 1244.

RICHARD de PERCY, the Surety, inherited from his aunt, the ''countess of Warwick," who died without issue, her share of the Percy heritage He was one of the first powerful lords to take up arms against King John in the cause of "a constitutional government," and was excommunicated. He died without issue about 1244.

The Magna Charta Barons at Runnymede Home Page

This is the beginning of a project to provide profiles and biographical information about the Barons who were at Runnymede in June, 1215 in support of the Charter.
The 25 Surety Barons, listed in the Magna Charta, of whom 17 have left issue who survived, have received considerable genealogical attention so that the focus of the information on their pages will be biographical and historical.
The additional 200 Barons who are preliminarily listed below have not, to our knowledge, received the same attention from authors who have published genealogical research.
This information concerning the Barons is based on the best information which is available to the author of this page.

This is a listing of the 25* Surety Barons of Magna Charta:

WILLIAM D'ALBINI
    Lord of Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire d. 1236
ROGER BIGOD
    Earl of Norfolk d. 1220
HUGH BIGOD
    The Earl of Norfolk's heir d. 1225
HENRY DE BOHUN
    Earl of Hereford d. 1220
RICHARD DE CLARE
    Earl of Hertford d. 1217
GILBERT DE CLARE
    The Earl of Hertford's heir d. 1230
JOHN FITZROBERT
    Lord of Warkworth Castle, Northumberland d. 1240
ROBERT FITZWALTER
    Lord of Dunmow Castle, Essexshire d. 1234
WILLIAM DE FORTIBUS
    Earl of Albemarle d. 1241
WILLIAM DE HARDELL
    Mayor of London d. after 1216
WILLIAM DE HUNTINGFIELD
    A feudal baron in Suffolk d. 1220
WILLIAM DE LANVALLEI
    Lord of Stanway Castle, Essex d. 1217
JOHN DE LACIE
    Lord of Halton Castle, Cheshire d. 1240
WILLIAM MALET
    Lord of Curry-Malet, Somersetshire d. about 1217
GEOFFREY DE MANDEVILLE
    Earl of Essex and Gloucester d. 1216
WILLIAM MARSHALL JR
    The Earl of Pembroke's heir d. 1231
*ROGER DE MONTBEGON
    Lord of Horneby, Lancashire d. 1226
RICHARD DE MONTFICHET
    A feudal baron in Essex? d. after 1258
*ROGER DE MOWBRAY
    A feudal baron in Northumberland d. 1218
WILLIAM DE MOWBRAY
    Lord of Axholme Castle, Lincolnshire d. 1223
SAIRE DE QUINCEY
    Earl of Winchester d. 1219
RICHARD DE PERCY
    A feudal baron of Yorkshire d. 1244
ROBERT DE ROOS
    Lord of Hamlake Castle, Yorkshire d. 1226
GEOFFREY DE SAYE
    A feudal baron in Sussex? d. 1230
ROBERT DE VERE
    Earl of Oxford d. 1221
EUSTACE DE VESCI
    Lord of Alnwick, Northumberland d. 1216




1132 - 1203 Maude de Percy 71 71 Co heir of her father, the fourth Baron de Percy. William de Newburgh 3rd Earl of Warwick 0892 - 0968 Matilda of Ringelheim 76 76 Matilda founded many religious institutions including the Abbey of Quedlinburg. She was later canonized.

Matilda of Ringelheim (born in 892-March 14, 968) was the wife of Henry I the Fowler, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, whom she married in 909. Their son, Otto, succeeded his father as Otto I the Great.

Matilda founded many religious institutions including the Abbey of Quedlinburg. She was later canonized.

Their other children were Henry I the Quarrelsome, Gerberga (or Gerberge), Hadwig, Bruno I the Great.

0876 - 0936 Henry The Fowler 60 60 King of Germany 919 to 936.

Henry I, the Fowler (German, Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was Duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. First of the Ottonian Dynasty of German kings and emperors, he is generally considered to be the founder and first king of the medieaval German Empire, known until then as the East-Franconian Empire. An avid hunter, he obtained the epithet "the Fowler" because he was allegedly fixing his birding nets when messengers arrived to inform him that he was to be king.

Henry was the son of Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, and his wife Hedwiga, a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. In 906 he married Hatheburg, daughter of the Saxon count Erwin, but divorced her in 909 after she had given birth to his son Thankmar. Later that year he married Matilda of Ringelheim, daughter of Dietrich, count in western Saxony (Westfalia). Matilda bore him three sons and two daughters and founded many religious institutions, including the abbey of Quedlinburg where Henry is buried, and was later canonized.

Henry became duke of Saxony upon his father's death in 912 and, an able ruler, continued to strengthen Saxony, frequently in conflict with his neighbors to the South, the dukes of Franconia.

In 918 king Conrad I of the East-Franconian Empire, and duke of Franconia, died and recommended Henry as his successor as king, despite the fact that they had been at odds with each other from 912 to 915 over the title to lands in Thuringia. Conrad's choice was conveyed by duke Eberhard III of Franconia, Conrad's bother and successor, to the assembled Franconian and Saxon nobles at the Reichstag of Fritzlar in 919, which duly elected Henry to be king. Duke Burkhard I of Swabia soon followed suit, but duke Arnulf of Bavaria did not submit until Henry invaded Bavaria in 921 and Arnulf swore fielty to him.

Henry regarded the kingdom as a confederation of tribal duchies rather than a feudal kingdom and himself as primus inter pares. Rather than seeking to administer the empire through counts, as Charlemagne had done and his successors had attempted, Henry allowed the dukes of Franconia, Swabia and Bavaria to maintain complete internal control of their holdings. In 925, he defeated Giselbert, duke of Lotharingia (Lorraine), and brought that realm, which had been lost in 910, back into the German kingdom as the fifth tribal duchy (the others being Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, and Bavaria), but allowing Giselbert to remain in power and marrying his daughter Gerberga to his new vassal in 928.

Henry was the only king of his time not to be anointed by a high church official, apparently because he did not wish to be a king by the church's but by the people's acclaim.

Henry was a very able military leader. Germany had been repeatedly raided by the Magyars (Hungarians), and in 924 Henry paid them a tribute to secure a ten-year truce so that he could fortify towns and train a new elite cavalry force. With his new army, he conquered the Havelli and the Daleminzi in 928 and put down a rebellion in Bohemia in 929. When the Magyars began raiding again, he led an army of all German tribes to victory over them at the battle of Riade in 933, ending their threat to Germany. He also pacified territories to the north, where the Danes had harried the Frisians off to the sea. The monk and historian Widukind of Corvey in his Rex gestae Saxonicae reports that the Danes were subjects of Henry the Fowler. Henry incorporated territories held by the Wends, who together with the Danes had attacked Germany, into his kingdom and also conquered Schleswig in 934.

When Henry died on 2 July 936, all German tribes were united in a single kingdom. Henry I is therefore considered the first German king and the founder of the eventual Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation).

His son Otto succeeded him as Emperor Otto I ("the Great"). His second son, Henry, became duke of Bavaria. A third son, Brun (or Bruno), became archbishop of Cologne. His son from his first marriage, Thankmar, rebelled against his half-brother Otto and was killed in battle in 936. His daughter Gerberga married Duke Giselbert of Lorraine and subsequently King Louis IV of France. His youngest daughter Hedwige of Saxony married Duke (Hugh the Great) of France and was the mother of Hugh Capet, the first Capetian king of France.

King of Germany
919 - 936

Preceded by:
Conrad I 
Succeeded by:
Otto I
Preceded by:
Otto I the Illustrious Duke of Saxony
912-936
Succeeded by:
Otto the Great
0912 - 0973 Otho I The Great 61 61 King of Germany.
2nd Holy Roman Emperor

Otto I the Great (November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor. (While Charlemagne had been crowned emperor in 800, his empire was divided among his grandsons, and following the assassination of Berengar of Friuli in 924, the imperial title lay vacant for nearly forty years.)
Early reign
Otto succeeded his father as king of the Germans in 936. He arranged for his coronation to be held in Charlemagne's former capital, Aachen. According to the Saxon historian Widukind of Corvey, at his coronation banquet he had the four other dukes of the empire, those of Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria and Lorraine, act as his personal attendants, Arnulf I of Bavaria as marshall (or stablemaster), Herman of Swabia as cupbearer (lat. pincerna or buticularius), Eberhard III of Franconia as steward, and Gilbert of Lorraine as chamberlain.

In 938, a rich vein of silver was discovered at the Rammelsberg in Saxony. This ore body would provide much of Europe's silver, copper, and lead for the next two hundred years, and this mineral wealth helped fund Otto's activities throughout his reign.

Otto's early reign was marked by a series of ducal revolts. In 938, Eberhard, the new duke of Bavaria, refused to pay Otto homage. When Otto deposed him in favor of his uncle Berthold, Eberhard of Franconia revolted, together with several of the Saxon nobility, who tried to depose Otto in favor of his elder half-brother Thankmar (son of Henry's first wife Hatheburg). While Otto was able to defeat and kill Thankmar in 936, the revolt continued the next year when Gilbert, the Duke of Lorraine, swore fealty to King Louis IV of France. Meanwhile, Otto's younger brother Henry conspired with the Archbishop of Mainz to assassinate him. The rebellion ended in 939 with Otto's victory at the Battle of Andernach, where the dukes of Franconia and Lorraine both perished. Henry fled to France, and Otto responded by supporting Hugh the Great in his campaign against the French crown, but in 941 Otto and Henry were reconciled through the efforts of their mother, and the next year Otto withdrew from France after Louis recognized his suzerainty over Lorraine.

To prevent further revolts, Otto arranged for all the important duchies in the German kingdom to be held by close family members. He kept the now-vacant duchy of Franconia as a personal fiefdom, while in 944 he bestowed the duchy of Lorraine upon Conrad the Red, who later married his daughter Liutgard. Meanwhile, he arranged for his son Liutdolf to marry Ida, the daughter of Duke Herman of Swabia, and to inherit that duchy when Herman died in 947. A similar arrangement led to Henry becoming duke of Bavaria in 949.
Campaigns in Italy and eastern Europe
Meanwhile, Italy had fallen into political chaos. On the death (950), possibly by poisoning, of Lothair of Arles, the Italian throne was inherited by a woman, Adelaide of Italy, the respective daughter, daughter-in-law, and widow of the last three kings of Italy. A local noble, Berengar of Ivrea, declared himself king of Italy, abducted Adelaide, and tried to legitimize his reign by forcing Adelaide to marry his son Adalbert. However, Adelaide escaped to Canossa and requested German intervention. Ludolf and Henry independently invaded northern Italy to take advantage of the situation, but in 951 Otto frustrated his son's and his brother's ambitions by invading Italy himself, forcing Berengar to swear fealty, and then, having been widowed since 946, marrying Adelaide.

This marriage triggered another revolt. When Adelaide bore a son, Ludolf feared for his position as Otto's heir, and in 953 he rebelled in league with Conrad the Red and the Archbishop of Mainz. While Otto was initially successful in reasserting his authority in Lorraine, he was captured while attacking Mainz, and by the next year, the rebellion had spread throughout the kingdom. However, Conrad and Ludolf erred by allying themselves with the Magyars. Extensive Magyar raids in southern Germany in 954 compelled the German nobles to reunite, and at the Diet of Auerstadt, Conrad and Ludolf were stripped of their titles and Otto's authority reestablished. In 955, Otto cemented his authority by routing Magyar forces at the Battle of Lechfeld.
The Ottonian system
A key part of Otto's domestic policy lay in strengthening ecclesiastical authorities, chiefly bishops and abbots, at the expense of the secular nobility. Otto endowed the bishoprics and abbeys with large tracts of land, over which secular authorities had neither the power of taxation nor legal jurisdiction. In an extreme example, when Conrad the Red was stripped of his ducal title in Lorraine, he appointed his brother Bruno, already the Archbishop of Cologne as the new duke of Lorraine. In the lands Otto conquered from the Wends and other Slavic peoples on his eastern borders, he founded several new bishoprics.

Because Otto personally appointed the bishops, these reforms strengthened his central authority, and the upper ranks of the German church functioned in some respect as an arm of the imperial bureaucracy. Conflict between Otto's successors and the growing power of the Papacy over these powerful bishoprics would, however, eventually lead to the Investiture Conflict and the undoing of central authority in Germany.
Imperial title
In the early 960s, Italy was again in political turmoil, and when Berengar occupied the northern Papal States, Pope John XII asked Otto for assistance. Otto returned to Italy and on February 2, 962, the pope crowned him emperor. (Translatio imperii.) Ten days later, the pope and emperor ratified the Diploma Ottonianum, in which the emperor became the guarantor of the independence of the papal states. After Otto left Rome and reconquered the Papal States from Berengar, however, John became fearful of the emperor's power and sent envoys to the Magyars and the Byzantine Empire to form a league against Otto. In November of 963, Otto returned to Rome and convened a synod of bishops that deposed John and crowned Leo VIII, at that time a layman, as pope. When the emperor left Rome, however, civil war broke out in the city between those who supported the emperor and those who supported John. John returned to power amidst great bloodshed and excommunicated those who had deposed him, forcing Otto to return to Rome a third time in July of 964 to depose Pope Benedict V (John having died two months earlier). On this occasion, Otto extracted from the citizens of Rome a promise not to elect a pope without imperial approval.

Otto unsuccessfully campaigned in southern Italy on several occasions from 966-972, although in 972, the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimisces recognized Otto's imperial title and agreed to a marriage between Otto's son and heir Otto II and his niece Theophano.

After his death in 973 he was buried next to his first wife Editha of Wessex in the Cathedral of Magdeburg





Hedwiga Hedwiga was a great-grandaughter of Charlemagne. D. 0936 Otto The Illustrious Duke of Saxony.
Count Giselbert.
Ruler of the Maasgau province (Belgium).
Married Hedwiga, a great grand-daughter of Charlemagne, in 846.
Luitgrade of Saxony Third wife of Louis II 0863 Louis III King of France Louis III (c. 863 - August 5, 882) was king of France from 879 to 882. The son of Louis II and Ansgarde, he succeeded in 879 along with his brother Carloman. Out of the following partition of the country, Louis got Francia and Neustria. He achieved a victory against the Normans pirates at Saucourt-en-Vimeu, in 881. When he died without heir at Saint Denis in 882, his brother was left sole regent.

King of Western Francia
879 - 882

Preceded by:
Louis II
Succeeded by:
Carloman

D. 0884 Carloman King of France Carloman (died December 12, 884), king of Western Francia, was the eldest son of King Louis the Stammerer, and became king, together with his brother Louis III, on his father's death in 879.

Although some doubts were cast upon their legitimacy, the brothers obtained recognition and in 880 made a division of the kingdom, Carloman receiving Burgundy and the southern part of France. In 879 Boso, Count of Arles took Provence from the Franks. In 882 Carloman became sole king owing to his brother's death, but the kingdom was in a deplorable condition partly owing to incursions from the Norman raiders, and his power was very circumscribed. There were revolts of the feudal lords even in Burgundy.

Carloman met his death while hunting on December 12, 884.


Preceded by:
Louis III King of Western Francia
879 - 884 Succeeded by:
Charles II

0778 - 0818 Ermengarde 40 40 Ermengarde, or Irmengarde de Hesbaye (born about 778) was the daughter of Count Ingerman, Count of Hesbania (Hesbaye, now in Liège, Belgium) and Hedwig of Bavaria.
She married in 794 or 795 Louis I, king of Aquitania, king of Franks, king of Italy, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.

She had six children :
Lothar I, born 795 in Altdorf, Bavaria
Pepin I, born 797
Adelaide, born. ca. 799
Rotrude, born 800
Hildegard / Matilda, born ca. 802
Louis II "the German", born ca. 805,

She died at Angers, France on 3 October 818.


Adelaide Judith of Paris Second wife of Louis II 0773 - 0810 Pepin of Italy 37 37 King Of Italy. D. 0811 Charles Lothar Pepin of Aquitaine Louis the German Louis the German (also known as Louis II) (804 - September 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Irmengarde, was ruler of Eastern Francia from 817 until his death.

His early years were partly spent at the court of his grandfather, Charlemagne, whose special affection he is said to have won. When the emperor Louis divided his dominions between his sons in 817, Louis received Bavaria and the neighbouring lands, but did not undertake the government until 825, when he became involved in war with the Wends and Sorbs on his eastern frontier. In 827 he married Emma, sister of his stepmother Judith, and daughter of Welf I, whose possessions ranged from Alsace to Bavaria. Louis soon began to interfere in the quarrels arising from Judith's efforts to secure a kingdom for her own son Charles (later known as Charles the Bald), and the consequent struggles of Louis and his brothers with the emperor Louis I.

When the elder Louis died in 840 and his eldest son Lothar claimed the whole Empire, Louis allied with his half-brother, (now) king Charles the Bald, and defeated Lothar at Fontenoy in June 841. In June 842, the three brothers met on an island in the Saone to negotiate a peace, and each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms. This developed into the Treaty of Verdun concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the bulk of the lands of the Carolingian empire lying east of the Rhine, together with a district around Speyer, Worms and Mainz, on the left bank of the river. His territories included Bavaria, where he made Regensburg the centre of his government, Thuringia, Franconia and Saxony. He may truly be called the founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to maintain the unity of the Empire proved futile. Having in 842 crushed a rising in Saxony, he compelled the Obotrites to own his authority, and undertook campaigns against the Bohemians, the Moravians and other tribes, but was not very successful in freeing his shores from the ravages of Danish pirates.

At his instance, synods and assemblies were held where laws were decreed for the better government of church and state. In 853 and the following years, Louis made more than one attempt to secure the throne of Aquitaine, which, according to the Annals of the Abbey of Fulda (Annales Fuldensis), the people of that country offered him in their disgust with the cruel misrule of Charles the Bald. Encouraged by his nephews Pepin II of Aquitaine and Charles of Provence, Louis invaded; Charles the Bald could not even raise an army to resist the invasion, and in 858 Louis issued a charter dated "the first year of the reign in West Francia." Treachery and desertion in his army, and the loyalty to Charles of the Aquitanian bishops brought about the failure of the enterprise, which Louis renounced by a treaty signed at Coblenz on June 7, 860.

In 855 the emperor Lothar died, and Louis and Charles for a time seem to have cooperated in plans to divide Lothar's possessions among themselves -- the only impediments to this being Lothar's sons, Lothar II, Louis II, and Charles of Provence. In 863 on the death of Charles, they divided Provence and Burgundy between them. In 868 at Metz they agreed definitely to a partition; but when Lothar II died in 869, Louis the German was lying seriously ill, and his armies were engaged with the Moravians. Charles the Bald accordingly seized the whole kingdom; but Louis the German, having recovered, compelled him by a threat of war to agree to the treaty of Mersen, which divided it between the claimants.

The later years of Louis the German were troubled by risings on the part of his sons, the eldest of whom, Carloman, revolted in 861 and again two years later; an example that was followed by the second son Louis, who in a further rising was joined by his brother Charles. A report that the emperor Louis II was dead led to peace between father and sons and attempts by Louis the German to gain the imperial crown for Carloman. These efforts were thwarted by Louis II, who was not in fact dead, and his uncle, Charles the Bald.

Louis was preparing for war when he died on September 28, 876 at Frankfurt. He was buried at the abbey of Lorsch, leaving three sons and three daughters. Louis is considered by many to be the most competent of the descendants of Charlemagne. He obtained for his kingdom a certain degree of security in face of the attacks of Normans, Hungarians, Moravians and others. He lived in close alliance with the Church, to which he was very generous, and entered eagerly into schemes for the conversion of his heathen neighbours.

Preceded by:
Louis I King of Eastern Francia Succeeded by:
Carloman, Louis III and Charles II
Ermentrude Princess of the West Franks 0720 - 0783 Bertrada of Laon 63 63 Frankish queen.
Also known as Bertha the Big Foot.
She was born in Laon, in today's Aisne, France, the daughter of Caribert of Laon. She married Pippin III (Pippin the Short) in 740.
Of her children with Pippin, two sons and one daughter survived to adulthood, including Charlemagne and Carloman
0714 - 0768 Pepin The Short 54 54 Also known as Pepin III or Pippin III.
Elected King of the Franks.
Drove the Saracens out of France and annexed Aquitaine.
0690 - 0724 Chrotrud 34 34 0686 - 0741 Charles Martel 55 55 Known as Charles The Hammer.
Mayor of the Austrasian Palace - de facto ruler of France.
732 Battle of Tours & Battle of Poitiers - Led a Frankish army against the Saracens invading Europe and halted them.  He was hailed as the salvation of Europe.
It was left to his grandson Charlemagne to totally drive the Saracens back behind the Pyrenees, and to totally defeat the Saxons and incorporate them into the Frankish empire.
Charles Martel began the unification of France, further expanded by his son Pepin The Short, and completed by his grandson Charlemagne..
Alpaida Also known as Chalpaida.
Concubine to Pepin The Younger.
0635 - 0714 Pippin The Younger 79 79 Also known as Pippin of Herstal and Pepin II.
As the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy from 680 to 714, he gradually controlled the Frankish court. The Merovingian king Theuderic III attempted to oust Pepin from his post, but he was defeated at Tertry in 687. Pepin then became the actual ruler of Austrasia, keeping a strong influence over the other Frankish kingdoms. His descendants continued to serve as Mayors of the Palace, eventually becoming the legal rulers of the Frankish kingdoms.
Plectrude Around 670, Pippin II married Plectrude for her inheritance of substantial estates in the Moselle region. They produced at least two children and through them at least two significant grandchildren. These legitimate children and grandchildren claimed themselves to be Pepin's true successors and with the help of his widow Plectrude tried to maintain the position of Mayor of the Palace after Pepin II's death on December 16, 714. However, Charles Martel, Pippin's son by his mistress, Alpaida (or Chalpaida), had gained favour among the Austrasians, primarily for his military prowess and ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests. Despite the efforts of Plectrude to silence her rival's child by imprisoning him, he became the sole Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of Francia.

0695 - 0708 Drogo 13 13 D. 0714 Grimoald II D. 0751 Childebrand D. 0649 Begga Ansegisel Ansegisel, or Duke Angiese, was the son of Arnulf of Metz and his wife Doda.
Duke Ansgise was Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia in 632. He served Sigbert, son of King Dagobert, who ruled 629 - 639.

Itta 0580 - 0640 Pepin The Elder, of Landen "Saint Pepin" 60 60 Also known as Pippin The Elder and Pippin I.
Saint Pepin of Landen, also known as Pepin the Elder (b. 580 - d. 640), was the Frankish Mayor of the Palace of the Austrasia under the Merovingian kings Clotaire II, Dagobert I and Sigebert III from 615 or 623 to 640.

0586 - 0612 Doda 26 26 0582 - 0640 Arnulf of Metz "Saint Arnold" 58 58 Arnulf of Metz (August 13, 582 - August 16, 640) was a Frankish noble, who had great influence in the Merovingian kingdoms as bishop and was later made a saint.
Arnulf gave distinguished service at the Austrasian court under Theudebert II (595-612). In 613, however, with Pippin of Landen he led the aristocratic opposition to Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia that led to her downfall and the reunification of Frankish lands under Clotaire II. About the same year, he became Bishop of Metz.
From 623, again with Pippin, now Mayor of the Austrasian palace, Arnulf was adviser to Dagobert I, before retiring in 627 to become a hermit in the Vosges mountains with his friend Romaric.
Before he was consecrated, he had three children by his wife, Doda:
Ansegisel
Chlodulf
Martin
Ansegisel married Pippin's daughter, Begga, and the son of this marriage, Pippin II, was Charlemagne's great-grandfather.
Arnulf was canonized and is known as the patron saint of brewing. His feast day is either July 18 or August 16. In iconography, he is portrayed with a rake in his hand. He is often confused in the legends with Arnold of Soissons, another patron saint of brewing. He is also known as Saint Arnold.

UNCERTAIN ANCESTRY
While Arnulf is recognised as one of the earliest documented ancestors of, say, Charlemagne and thereby most modern European Royal families, Arnulf's own parentage is both uncertain and undocumented:
Some have claimed that Arnulf's father was Arnoldus (b Abt. 535, Saxony, Germany - d. 600), and that his mother was Ada of Schwabia.
According to Frankish myth, Arnulf was the son of Bodigisel.
Others have claimed that Arnulf's mother was Berthe, Princess of Paris (539-640)
Still others hold that Arnulf descended from Mellobaude thus:

Descendants of Mellobaude:

Mellobaude 320 - 376

Richemir 350 - 384
married
Ascyla 352 -

Theodemir Magnus 370 - 414
married
Valentina Justina - 414

Clovis the Riparian 398 - 448
married
Ildegonde De Cologne 399 - 450

Childebert of Cologne 430 - 483
married
Amalaberge 435 - 478

Siegbert the Lame       - 509

Cloderic of Cologne     477 -
married
Parricide  

Munderic        500 - 532
married
Arthenia    500 -

Bodegisel I    
married
Palatina    

Bodegisel II     - 588
married
Oda of Suevian

Arnulf 582 - 641
married
Dode 586 - 612
Martin Chlodulf Grimoald Mayor of the Palace of the Austrasia.

Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval title and office, also known by the Latin name, maior domus or majordomo, used most notably in the Frankish kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries.
During the 8th century, the office of Mayor of the Palace developed into the true power behind the throne in Austrasia, the northeastern portion of the Kingdom of the Franks under the Merovingian dynasty.
The office became hereditary in the family of the Carolingians. After Austrasia and Neustria were reunited to form a joint Frankish kingdom, Pippin III - Majordomo since 747 - took the crown of the Merovingians in 751 to establish the line of Carolingian rulers. His son Charlemagne assumed even greater power when he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800, thus becoming one of the most prominent figures in French and German history.

0625 - 0659 Gertrude 34 34 Gertrude, (b.625 - 17 march 659) burried in the convent of Nijvel founded by here mother itta. She was later canonised as a saint and usually portrayed accompanied with mice.

0751 - 0771 Carloman 20 20 Carloman (751 - December 4, 771) was a King of the Franks (768 - 771). He was the second son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon.
Along with his brother Charles, Carloman was anointed as king by Pope Stephen III in 754. After Pepin's death in 768 AD, Carloman and Charles divided the kingdom between them, with Carloman taking the eastern portion, Austrasia. There was considerable tension between the brothers, which may be the reason why, at Carloman's death, his wife Gerberga fled with her sons to the court of Desiderius, king of the Lombards. Because some sources state that Gerberga was Desiderius' daughter, it is difficult to judge the level of fraternal tension. Chronicles more sympathetic to Charles imply that he was bemused by Gerberga's action. Upon Carloman's death, his kingdom was absorbed into Charles', who then distributed portions to his own sons.

1742 - 1817 Hugh Smithson Percy 2nd Duke of Northumberland 75 75 Hugh Percy, 2nd duke of Northumberland, 1786 - 1817. 
Born 1742, died 1817, British general. He fought on the Continent in the Seven Years War and, although he disapproved of the war against the colonists in America, served there (1774-77) as a lieutenant general. He covered the bloody British retreat from Concord to Charlestown after the battle of Lexington and took part in the attack on Fort Washington. Recalled at his own request, following disputes with Gen. William Howe, he was made a general in 1793.
During the Napoleonic Wars he raised his own regiment of 1500 men.

Had 2 wives, the second was Frances Jane Burrell who bore him 3 sons, Hugh later Third Duke, Henry died as a child, and Algernon later Fourth Duke; and had 6 daughters.
He also fathered a number of illegitimate children - these children are not recorded in the genealogical manuscripts of the Duke of Northumberland.
1853 - 1919 Clara Benton 66 66 1849 - 1902 Henry Ballard 53 53 Frank Tippin Ballard in his diary written late in life (in the possession of Ralph Ballard) records that:
"Henry was born 1849 and died 1902.
He was a brassfitter employed by the gas company in Birmingham, England.
He married Clara, and they had 2 children - Frank born 1877, and Helen (died young).
Later Henry and Clara had pubs - mainly "outdoor licences" around Birmingham and brewed their own ale. They usually drank the profits from the pubs."

Pat Horton, England, notes that the 1861 UK Census lists Henry Ballard (clog maker) resident in the household of his parents William Ballard and Eliza Hall, at 29 Suffolk Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire.  His siblings were listed as Eliza (born 1846 - clog maker), George (born 1848 - clog maker), Mary (born 1853) and Ellen (born 1856).

Pat Horton further notes that the 1881 census records Henry Ballard and his wife Clara Benton as living at Rea Street, Birmingham and their children were listed as:
- Frank Ballard (born 1878, Birmingham)
- Ellen Ballard (born 1879)

Paul Ballard (website - http://www.paul-ballard.com/) records that:
"Henry3 Ballard39 was born in 1849 at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.51 He appeared on the census of 30 Mar 1851 in the household of William Ballard and Eliza Unknown at Sandy Lane, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.18 He appeared on the census of 7 Apr 1861 in
the household of William Ballard and Eliza Unknown at 29 House, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.38 He married Clara Benton in Dec 1870 at Birmingham Registration District, Warwickshire, England.52 He appeared on the census of 2 Apr 1871 in the household of George Ballard and Elizabeth Woodley at 40 1/2 Warner Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.53 He and Clara Benton appeared on the census of 3 Apr 1881 at 1 H 18 CT Rea Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.54 He appeared on the census of 5 Apr 1891 in the household of William Ballard at 80 Adderley Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.55 He appeared on the census of 31 Mar 1901 at 18 Great Ban      Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.56
Children:
- Frank
- Eleanor  (born December 1878 and died December 1901)

Endnotes:
51. 3 April 1881 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG11 The National Archive.  [.....]; General Record Office Register, Henry Ballard; Jun Qtr 1851; Birmingham; Volume: 16 Page: 287.  [.....].

52. unknown author, General Record Office Register, Henry Ballard & Clara Benton; Dec Qtr 1870; Birmingham; Volume: 6d Page: 263.  [3311.].

53. 2 April 1871 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG10, RG10/3135 folio 140 page 6.  [33333].

54. Henry Ballard; head; married; aged 32; Burnisher; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Clara Ballard; wife; married; aged 27; lacquerer; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Frank Ballard; son; aged 3; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Ellen Ballard; daur; aged 2; born Birmingham, Warwickshire;
3 April 1881 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG11, RG11/2985 folio 21 page 36. [33333].

55. 5 April 1891 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG12 The National Archive, RG12/2406 folio 127 page 6.  [3.333].

56. Henry Ballard; head; married; aged 52; chandelier burnisher; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
+ 2 lodgers;
31 March 1901 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG13, RG13/2855 folio 27 page 4.  [3.333].





1856 - 1914 Anne Wrightson Leach 58 58 First child.
Born and lived at Glenpatrick, Victoria - the next valley to Nowhere Creek at Elmhurst.  She lived at the general store at the Glenpatrick gold diggings run by her parents.
At age 18 she married the eldest son of Mr. and Mrs. Webber Moore - Thomas Fraunceis Moore - at De Cameron in 1865.
She was a school teacher and music teacher.
Adored by her children.

?? Died 24 July 1914 aged 58  years - from her tombstone at Elmhurst.
1849 - 1942 Thomas Fraunceis Moore 93 93 First child.
Thomas Fraunceis Moore had born in England in 1849 (as recorded on his tombstone in Elmhurst he died 7 August 1942 aged 93 years).  At the age of 1 year his parents (Mr. Thomas Webber Moore and Louisa Matilda Percy) took him to America.  Then 1 or 2 years later they emigrated to Australia where he grew up.

The Luppitt parish register, Honiton, Devon, England records the baptism of Thomas Francis Griffith Moore, son of Thomas and Louisa Matilda Moore on 8 February 1849.

They first settled in Ballarat, Victoria, and were present during the gold rush there, which had begun in 1851.
The family later moved to land at Nowhere Creek at Elmhurst, Victoria, c1854, and had sufficient funds to buy a substantial property there, which they called "Deer Park" in memory of Louisa's father.

Thomas Fraunceis fancied Anne daughter of the Leach family who ran the general store at the nearby Glenpatrick gold diggings.  She was a local school-teacher and he corresponded with her by letter - according to Bev Moore (Start).  Thomas Fraunceis lthen married Annie Leach at De Cameron in 1865.
After marrying Annie, Thomas Fraunceis set off from the family property at Deer Park, Elmhurst with his wife and brother Richard Percy & his wife Jane, to Appin (on the Loddon River near Kerang) and jointly pioneered a property there.  They also promoted the 12 Mile Canal Company (later the 12 Mile Irrigation Trust) - which was the first group of men to create & use gravity irrigation from a canal in Victoria, via a 9 mile long canal which was built to service an area 3 miles wide on the east side of the Loddon River.  This was later mirrored by the Sheepwash Company (later the Leagluir and Merring Irrigation Trust) which built a similar canal to service the west side of the Loddon River.  Subsequently the Goo Scheme took over the 2 canals and added them to its own canal network.

20 years later in about 1895 the partnership ended when Thomas Fraunceis and his wife Annie returned to Elmhurst to take over the Deer Park property from Thomas Fraunceis' father.

Respected by his children, but rather tough and distant - called by his children "The Pater".

According to a family story quoted by Louisa Gillies (nee Moore) - daughter of Thomas Fraunceis Moore "Many years later Mr. and Mrs. Moore were buried near his father's and mother's grave.  Mrs. Moore predeceasing him by some years.  Mr. Moore living to the grand old age of 96."

Family stories relate that Thomas Fraunceis Moore had a rich "uncle" and he hoped to inherit the fortune - this however did not come about. 
There were also family stories told by the Moores that there was a large sum of money held in chancery for the family - but no-one was ever able to locate or claim it.
?? Could the "rich uncle" have been James Smithson in England who left a large bequest to set up a scientific institution - this money eventually went to America to set up the Smithsonian Institute.
1815 - 1888 Louisa Matilda Percy 72 72 Born in Devonshire, England.
Fourth child .
She married Mr. Moore from Devon at Awliscombe church, (Awliscombe is a village 2 miles west of Honiton), District of Honiton, Devon on 23 March 1848.
Moore family tradition says they then migrated to America in 1850 with Louisa's 2 sisters and 1 brother, and respective families.  In fact they probably left for America shortly after their mother Harriet Fraunceis Griffith died in February 1851.
The family story says they went to America to seek their fortune in the gold rush there.

Subsequently Louisa Matilda came to Australia with her husband Thomas Webber Moore and their child Thomas Fraunceis - landing at Port Phillip in 1853 to try their luck in the Victorian gold rush.
Thomas and Louisa Moore brought their young son Thomas Fraunceis Moore with them - he had been born in England, then travelled with them to America but grew up in Australia.

They first settled in Ballarat, Victoria, and were present during the gold rush there.  They did well with finding gold at the various central Victorian goldfields, including Linton, Armstrong, Glendhu then Glenpatrick.

The family later moved to land at Nowhere Creek at Elmhurst, Victoria circa 1854, and had sufficient funds to buy a substantial property there, which they called "Deer Park" in memory of Louisa's father.

Louisa began life in polite society in England, but after marrying Mr. Moore and coming to Victoria, she had many wild adventures, which she coped with very well. 

Louisa Matilda Moore died at Elmhurst in 1888 - as recorded in inquest documentation held by the Avoca and District Historical Society.
According to family tradition recorded by Louisa Emma Moore, when Louisa Matilda died in a fatal buggy accident, the local press published these obituitaries:
The Ararat Adventurer said  "MOORE.  At Glendhu, Jan 29th 1888, result of accident, Louisa Matilda, aged 70 years, wife of Thomas Moore, of Devonshire, England, and niece of Squire Gwyn of Ford Abbey, Dorsetshire, England."

The Melbourne Press said "Mrs. Moore, wife of Mr. Moore, Elmhurst, died in a fatal accident, aged 70 years. Mrs. Moore was the niece of Squire Gwyn of Ford Abbey, England, and grand-daughter of the Duke of Northumberland on the paternal side."
She was buried in Elmhurst Cemetary.

***The above information and many other stories are from private writings by Louisa Matilda's grand-daughter Lou Moore, now in the possession of Ralph Ballard.

Louisa, daughter of Richard Percy of Deer Park, Devon and of Miss Harriett "Louisa" Griffith of the Gwyn family at Forde Abbey (who was living at Forde Abbey when the last Squire John Gwyn died in 1846), could have met Mr. Moore around the family home in Luppitt, Honiton, Devon.

Note there is a record of a Moore-Gwyn family in Dyffryn, Glamorgan, Wales.
There are plentiful records from the 1500's to 1846 of the Gwyn family of Forde Abbey, Dorset having estates in Llansanor, Glamorgan, Wales.

All these records are housed by the National Register of Archives.
See:   http://www.nra.nationalarchives.gov.uk/nra/searches/fedocs.asp?FER=F700
1822 - 1901 Thomas Webber Moore 78 78 Born in Luppitt, Honiton, Devonshire, England on 30 March 1822.
Baptised at Luppitt Church (Luppitt is a village 4 miles north of Honiton) on 16 January 1823.
Thomas Webber Moore grew up on his parents farm "Smithenhayes".
Bev Moore has a picture (see the "Farm In Luppitt" photo in the Pictures section of this entry) which is supposed to be of Smithenhayes Farm and showing the room on the upper floor (far right hand room in the photo) where Thomas Fraunceis Moore was born - however the picture turns out to be of Holyshute House in Honiton, Devon from c.1880 (as confirmed by Trevor Hitchcock of Honiton Museum).

Thomas Webber Moore from Devon, married Louisa Matilda Percy (Pursey) in 1848 and they migrated to Long Island, America in c.1851 - like Louisa's 2 sisters and 1 brother.
They then came to Australia - landing at Port Phillip in 1853 to try their luck in the gold rush.
They brought their young son Thomas Fraunceis Moore with them - he had been born in England, then travelled with them to America but grew up in Australia.

Thomas Webber Moore and family sailed from Long Island, USA to Melbourne in 1853.  An entry in the 1865 PRO Index shows that T. W. Moore arrived in Melbourne on board the "Euphrasia" in August 1853.  Note that family legend states that he arrived on the "Medora".

They first settled in Ballarat, Victoria, and were present during the gold rush which had started there in 1851.

During their time on the goldfields they were often set upon by thieves and bushrangers, but Mr. and Mrs. Moore had secure hiding places for their valuables, including gold - Mr. Moore had a secret cavity in the wheel of their buggy, and Mrs. Moore would put valuables in her shawl then leave it out  with their camp garbage.  In this way they kept their valuables safe.
Once Mr. Moore was riding to Melbourne when he was set upon by 2 bushrangers near Mansfield.  They pursued him for many miles on horseback, but he eventually outrode them.

They tried their luck at a number of goldfields, including Linton, Armstrong, Glendhu then Glenpatrick.
By this time they had quite a large family and amassed sufficient funds from gold prospecting.
So they settled near to the Glenpatrick Valley, in an adjacent fertile valley called Nowhere Creek Valley (Nowhere Creek was a tributary of the Wimmera River).

So in 1867 the family moved to land at Nowhere Creek at Elmhurst, Victoria, and had sufficient funds to buy a substantial property there, which they called "Deer Park" in memory of Louisa's father.

At Deer Park, Mr. Moore built a substantial homestead, and planted a vineyard and an orchard.

For some years while the Deer Park property was being properly established, Mr. Moore was often absent for long periods, working in mining.  For a time he managed a gold mine in Glendhu, and later he was involved with a goldmine at Wood... with Mr. Digby.

According to a story written by Louisa E. Gillies (nee Moore) - grand-daughter of Thomas Webber Moore "When Mr. Moore died he was buried beside her (Louisa Matilda). 
The following inscription is on their gravestone:  In loving memory of our beloved father Thomas Webber Moore who died on February 10 1901, aged 79 years.
Also of our dear mother Louisa Matilda Moore niece of Esquire Gwyn of Dorset, who died 29 Jan 1888, aged 70 years."
Louisa Gillies goes on "Both Mr. and Mrs. Moore had hoped to return to England with family and fortune - but it was not to be.  When his wife died Mr. Moore did return to England, meaning to live out the rest of his life in his beloved homeland.  But finding everything so changed after his long years of absence, he soon returned to Australia, the raw new land that had adopted him against his will.
He said that the harshness of its (England's) cold winter was unbearable after Australian warmth and sunshine.
Such is the story of two  of the early pioneers, who came to Australia seeking to take what they could from it, but were taken instead by it - and kept."

Surmise - Perhaps Mr. Moore's family was originally from Glamorgan, Wales??

Note there is a record of a Moore-Gwyn family in Dyffryn, Glamorgan, Wales (from records kept 1667 to 1980).
There is also a Moore family from Newton, Somerset (recorded in the 1600's to 1700's).
See the National Register of Archives website:
www.nra.nationalarchives.gov.uk/
1783 - 1851 Harriet Fraunceis "Louisa" Griffith 68 68 Niece of Squire John Gwyn of Forde Abbey, Dorset. 
Different family documents name her as either Louisa Griffiths or as Harriet Griffiths.
Family tradition says that after the death of her husband Richard Percy of Deer Park Devon in 1842, she returned to her family home at Forde Abbey with her children, and they lived there with her uncle John Gwyn Esquire until his death in 1846.  After his death Forde Abbey was sold to Mr. Miles - a slavetrader from Bristol, who evicted Mrs. Percy and her children and sold off most of the furnishings in a major sale in 1846.

According to another family tradition told by Edwin Gwynne Moore, her name was Louisa Gwyn and was married to Richard Percy of Deer Park, Devon.  When Richard fought a duel and wounded his opponent (and who later died), he and Louisa went to America with their children.  Richard later died and Louisa went to Australia in the company of her daughter Louisa Matilda Percy and her husband Thomas Webber Moore.

Edwin Gwynne Moore had a portrait titled "Louisa Pursey 1780", and he was told that there were two Louisa Percy's.
This drawing is now in the possession of Beverley Moore of Elmhurst.   It hung at "Huntindon" Elmhurst for many years, and by family tradition it portrays "the grandmater's mother". 
The significance of the name and date on this picture is uncertain, and needs to be corroborated against other records.  The portrait is reproduced here.
If the quote "the grandmater's mother" comes from Thomas Edwin Moore (as is likely), then this portrait could indeed be of Harriet Fraunceis Griffith - who in some family writings is known as Louisa Pursey (her married name).  If so then the date on the picture of 1780 is wrong, but the name is right.
Alternatively if the quote "the grandmater's mother" comes from Thomas Fraunceis Moore then the portrait is of Johanna Phillippa Moore - therefore correct date of c.1780 but wrong name.
A reasonable hypothesis is that this portrait is indeed of Harriet "Louisa" Fraunceis Griffith, and that the inscription in full should read "Louisa Pursey born circa 1780, drawn circa 1808 around the time of her marriage to Richard Pursey".
The proposed date of 1808 is based on the observation that the woman in the picture appears to be in her mid-twenties, and Harriet did marry in 1808 at the age of 25.


***From recent information kindly supplied by Mr. John Criddle of Queensland, Australia, who is a descendant of John Griffith by his second marriage; Harriett Fraunceis Griffith, was the daughter of John Griffith Esq. of Stogumber and Joanna-Phillippa Fraunceis. 
Harriett was possibly born on 11 February 1783, and parish records show that she was baptised on 20 August 1799 at St. Martin's Church, Elworthy, Somerset, along with her brothers.
Harriett married Richard Percy / Purssey in Stogumber on 9 September 1808 at the Church of St. Mary The Virgin (source - parish records).
They had possibly 5 children:
1 - Ophelia Philippa Purssey  (born 19/6/1810 - parish register.  Christened 22/7/1810 - St. Mary's, Stogumber - parish register)
2 - Charles Blicke Purssey (christened 14/10/1813 - St. Mary's Stogumber - parish register.  Father listed as Richard, farmer, living in town)
3 - Louisa Matilda Pursey  (From tombstone - born 1818.  Died 29/1/1888 aged 70 years. Buried at Elmhurst cemetary, Victoria, Australia)
4 - Harriet Percy
5 - Richard Percy  (Moore family tradition says died 1852 in America)
6 - William Percy  (Moore family tradition says he died 1849)

Two years before her death, Harriett made the following affidavit:
"I Harriett Fraunceis Pursey of Porway(?) in the county of Devon widow so solemnly and sincerely declare that I am the widow of Richard Pursey late of Gettisham(?) in the county of Devon deceased, that his Grandfather William Pursey died, as I have heard and believe, at Stogumber in the county of Somerset in or about the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty-six leaving two sons only (unintelligible) William Pursey, his eldest son, and George Pursey.
And I further solemnly and sincerely declare, that the said William Pursey (the son) had three sons only (unintelligible) George Pursey, who died a minor and unmarried, and William Pursey, and my said husband Richard Pursey, that the said last mentioned William Pursey died a bachelor leaving my said husband his only Brother and Heir at Law. And I further solemnly and sincerely declare that my said husband died on or about the ninth day of July one thousand eight hundred and twenty eight leaving two sons only him surviving (unintelligible) William Charles Pursey and Richard Fraunceis Pursey which said William Charles Pursey died on or about the first day of may one thousand eight hundred and thirty two a Bachelor and intestate at Henrietta Street Covent Garden London and was buried in Covent Garden Churchyard on the sixth day of the same month leaving the said Richard Fraunceis Pursey his only Brother and Heir at Law him surviving.
And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing the same to be true and by virtue of the Provisions of an act made and (unintelligible) in the fifth and sixth years of the Reign of His late majesty King William the fourth intitled “an act to repeal an act of the present session of Parliament intitled “an act for the more effectual abolition of oaths and affirmations taken and made in various departments of the state and to declarations in lieu thereof and for the more entire suppression of voluntary and extra judicial oaths and affidavits and to make other provisions of the abolition of unnecessary oaths”

Harriet Franceis Pursey

Declared at Honiton in the county of Devon
The twenty ninth day of august 1849
Before me
William Alder(?)
A Minister & (unintelligible) in Chancery"

Harriett died in February 1851.
Her will was proved on 23 April 1851 (available online at The National Archives), and shows that she was resident at Wellington Street, Hoxton Old Town, Middlesex - at that time an outer suburb of London.
In the will Harriett left 200 pounds to her brother Thomas, then resident in Honiton, and the remainder of her estate to her grand-daughter Georgiana Joanna Potts who was stated to be living with Harriett at the time of making the will.  Harriett appointed her brother Thomas as executor of her will.




1778 - 1828 Richard Percy of Deer Park, Devon 50 50 Said to be a son of Hugh Percy 2nd Duke of Northumberland.
Family tradition says that he lived at Deer Park in Devonshire, near Honiton, England.

There are 2 family stories about Richard:
#1 - Told by Louisa Emma Moore is that Richard was gored to death by a bull in 1842.
Therefore Richard predeceased his older brothers who became the 3rd and 4th Dukes of Northumberland.
#2 - Told by Edwin Gwynne Moore quoting Thomas Fraunceis Moore is that the real hidden story is that Richard Percy fought a duel, and wounded his opponent (who later died).  This brought disgrace and a possible criminal charge to himself, and so he was told by the family to leave England.  As a result he, his wife Louisa and the children went to America for a time.  He later died from his wounds in the duel.  As a result of this disgrace, Richard was removed from the official Percy family records - and Richard changed his name to Pursey (as seen in the marriage certificate of his daughter Louisa Matilda when she married Thomas Webber Moore).  Or perhaps this was an example of the typical loose spelling of surnames at the time?
The remaining family then migrated to Australia in c.1853.
Note that Edwin Gwynne Moore says he got the real story because his father Thomas Edwin Moore was the eldest son and heir of Thomas Fraunceis Moore.

It is also possible that Richard was an illegitimate son of Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland.  Hugh was known to have many illegitimate children, and records of these are not kept at Alnwick Castle - they only keep records of the "main branch" of the Percy family, according to a letter from Alnwick Castle to Ralph Ballard dated 16 June 2005.

Records transcribed by the Somerset and Devon Family History Society show:
Richard Purssey baptised 25 June 1778 to William and Joan at the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Stogumber.
This appears to be our mysterious "Richard Percy".
If so - who was Richard's real biological father?
Was the Duke of Northumberland his biological father - and perhaps William did the right thing by Joan by claiming Richard as his own?
Or is Richard perhaps truly the son of William and Joan Purssey?

Stogumber parish records show that Richard Purssey married Harriett Fraunceis Griffith on 6 September 1808 at Stogumber church.

A sworn affidavit from Harriet Francis Pursey dated 29 August 1849 (2 years before her death) states that her husband Richard Pursey died on 9 July 1828.

*** Mr. David Turner of West Somerset has provided to me a copy of the original Baptism Register and the Marriage Register for Richard Purssey - these records confirm the accuracy of the information here.

Records of Stogumber indicate that Richard was a significant local landowner, and a man of some means and standing. 
For example the 1814 Poor Rates for Stogumber (available online) list Richard Pursey as the occupier of Purseys Farm and Tuckers Farm.
A map of Stogumber noted as "post-medieval and 19th century" available online at http://www1.somerset.gov.uk/archives/hes/downloads/EUS_StogumberMapC.pdf
shows "Purseys Farm" on Station Road - on the way to the local cricket ground.
Pursey's Farm is still in existence in Stogumber - it is located just off Station Road, opposite Pickpurse Lane.  This is a 15th century thatched, cob-built cottage.  Cob is a composition of clay, gravel, and straw, used for building walls.  Photo by John Grayson taken 2010 - see http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pursey's_Cottage,_Stogumber_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1766357.jpg and licence condtions at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/

In addition the will of Richard's wife, Harriett, was proved on 23 April 1851 (available online at The National Archives), and shows that she was resident at Wellington Street, Hoxton Old Town, Middlesex - at that time an outer suburb of London which had a number of old mansions, but later became a slum.  It is quite possible that Richard and Harriett in later life also maintained a house in London, as a fashionable thing to do.  Hence it would be consistent for them to own this house in Hoxton Old Town as a genteel (at that time) part of outer London, as well as country property in Stogumber.

To complicate matters there is a burial record of a Richard Pursey at the church of St. Martin In The Fields, Westminster borough, London, on 18 July 1831 - this man's age is given as 53 and year of birth as about 1778 - which also fits "our" Richard Pursey.
If this is indeed "our" Richard Pursey, then his burial at such a major church as St. Martin In The Fields would suggest that he was a man of substance with significant social standing.
*** However Nic Pursey has in November 2013 pointed out  the record of burial on 15 July 1828 at Gittisham parish, Devon, of Richard Pursey, aged 50 (therefore born about 1778 - this fits "our Richard Pursey" much better and is likely the correct record.

The marriage certificate for Thomas Moore and Louisa Matilda Pursey (Richard's daughter) dated 23 March 1848 records Louisa's father as "Richard Pursey - yeoman".

The baptism record for daughter Harriet Pursey in Monkton parish, Devon in 1821 records Richard's occupation as "schoolmaster".

Another question - why does family tradition refer to Richard as "of Deer Park, Devon"?

"Deer Park" is now a private hotel.  This Georgian squire's mansion is dated 1721, and set in 30 acres of glorious Devon landscape. The Deer Park Country House Hotel is situated at the end of a long drive just outside the historic lace town of Honiton, a mile or so from the main A30 London to Exeter road. It affords spectacular views of the River Otter.
1762 - 1846 Squire John Fraunceis Gwyn of Forde Abbey, Dorset 83 83 Also known as John Francis Gwyn, Esq. of Ford Abbey and of Combe Florey, Somerset.

John Fraunceis also took the surname of Gwyn, on the death of his father John Fraunceis Gwyn Esq. of Ford Abbey in 1789.

He was described as a kind generous, well educated and cultured man, who helped many needy people and those less fortunate.  He also arranged for major renovation work at Forde Abbey.

The memorial plaque to the last Gwyn in the chapel at Forde Abbey says "Sacred to the memory of John Frauncies Gwyn Esq. late of Combe Florey in the county of Somerset, Llansannor in the county of Glamorgan, and for fifty-six years the proprietor of Ford Abbey.  He was born on the 31st of Oct 1762, and on the 8th of October 1789 succeeded his father, who had in 1750, in compliance with the will of his kinsman Francis Gwynn of Ford Abbey and Llansanor, assumed the name of Gwynn.  The subject of this simple memorial was the last male descendant of a long line of ancestors who flourished in the counties of Somerset, Devon and Cornwall for many centuries.  He was twice married but left no issue.  He closed a long life, the greatest part of which was spent in this magnificent abode, on the 28th of February 1846 in  the 83rd year of his age."

Note that records from Llansanor parish, Glamorgan, Wales from 1809 and 1833 mention John Francis Gwyn, Esq. as the current Patron of the church dedicated to St. Senewyr, and as Proprietor of the principal part of the Parish.
See the website:
http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/GLA/Llansannor/

Apparently impoverished at the time of his death. 
In his will he left the manor of Uplowman, ancient seat of the Fraunceis family, to his great nephew John Fraunceis Griffith Esq.  He also left endowments for the poor of the parishes of Combe Florey and Thorncombe, and for the national schools of the united parishes of Cowbridge and of Llanblethian in Glamorganshire, Wales.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Gwyn:  
The property passed from the Gwyn family on the death of J. F. Gwyn in 1846, and there was an eight days' sale of the abbey's contents. The sale of the plate, some of which had belonged to Francis Gwyn, occupied almost the whole of the first day. The family portraits, collected by him and his father-in-law, were also sold. In the grand saloon was hung the tapestry said to have been wrought at Arras, and given to Gwyn by Queen Anne, depicting the cartoons of Raphael, for which Catharine of Russia, through Count Orloff, offered £30,000; and this was sold to the new proprietor for £2,200. One room at Ford Abbey was called 'Queen Anne's,' for whom it was fitted up when its owner Sir Francis Gwyn was secretary at war; and the walls were adorned with tapestry representing a Welsh wedding; the furniture and tapestry were also purchased for preservation with the house.

----------------------------------------------------------------------

After John Fraunceis Gwyn's death in 1846, Forde Abbey was sold to Mr. Miles - a slavetrader from Bristol, who evicted Mrs. Percy and her children and sold off most of the furnishings.
Forde then passed to the Evans family and then to the Roper family - it now belongs to Mark Roper (visited by Kath and Stan Ballard in 1990).
Contact Mark Roper, Forde Abbey, Chard, Somerset. TA20 4LU.
Phone: South Chard (0460) 20231

NOTE - Forde Abbey was founded as a Cistercian Monastery in 1148 and was `modernized' in 1500 by Abbot Chard, whose Great Hall and Tower remain. In 1640 the Abbey was turned by Sir Edmund Prideaux, Cromwell's Attorney General, into a Country House, whose magnificent interior is untouched, and includes a series of unique plaster ceilings and an outstanding set of Raphael Tapestries which were presented to Sir Frances Gwyn, Secretary of War by Queen Anne for services rendered.

Early in the 19th Century the house was rented by Jeremy Bentham the philosopher. Today the Abbey, surrounded by 25 acres of gardens and lakes, on the bank of the River Axe, is the home of the Roper family.

**** See also "A history of Forde Abbey, Dorsetshire" available online at http://www.archive.org/stream/historyoffordabb00londuoft/historyoffordabb00londuoft_djvu.txt

See also "Burke’s Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland" by Bernard Burke, 1847, page 519 at http://books.google.com.au/
These two valuable books have been kindly pointed out to me by John Criddle of Queensland, Australia.
1752 - 1820 Frances Jane Burrell 68 68 Second Wife.
Had 9 children to Hugh, Second Duke of Northumberland:
Hugh (1785 to 1847) later Third Duke,
Henry (1787 to 1794) died as a child,
Algernon (1792 to 1865) later Fourth Duke,
and 6 daughters.
D. 1847 Hugh 3rd Duke of Northumberland Third Duke of Northumberland 1817 - 1847.
Summoned to the House of Lords as Baron Percy 1812.
Represented King George IV as Special Ambassador as the Coronation of Charles X of France in 1825.
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1829 - 1830.
Died childless.
D. 1786 Sir Hugh Smithson Percy 1st Duke of Northumberland Sir Hugh Smithson was a Yorkshire baronet.
Married Elizabeth, and through her became 12th Earl of Northumberland 1750 - 1786.  He took the surname of Percy.
1763 appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
1766 created Duke of Northumberland for his services to the Crown.
D. 1776 Elizabeth Baroness Percy Elizabeth Seymour succeeded to the Barony of Percy and the Northumberland estates.
Baroness Percy.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Percy,_Duchess_of_Northumberland:
Elizabeth Percy, née Seymour, Duchess of Northumberland, heiress to the earldom of Northumberland and 2nd Baroness Percy (26 November 1716 – 5 December 1776) was a British peeress.

Elizabeth was the only daughter of the 7th Duke of Somerset and his wife, Frances, a daughter of Henry Thynne. On 16 July 1740, she married Sir Hugh Smithson, Bt and they had two sons, Hugh (1742-1817) and Algernon (1750-1830). On her father's death in 1750, she inherited his barony of Percy and her husband acquired from her father his earldom of Northumberland by special remainder and changed his family name from Smithson to Percy that year. Sir Hugh's illegitimate son James Smithson, otherwise Jacques Louis Macie, born in about 1764 to one of Elizabeth's cousins, bequeathed the fortune which established the Smithsonian Institution.

In 1761, Elizabeth became a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Charlotte, a post she held until 1770. She became a duchess in 1766 when her husband was created Duke of Northumberland, and on her death in 1776 her barony and the Earldom of Northumberland passed to her eldest son, Hugh, who inherited his father's dukedom ten years later. He built Brizlee Tower as one of a number of monuments to commemorate her.
1778 - 1867 George 2nd Earl of Beverley and 5th Duke of Northumberland 89 89 5th Duke of Northumberland 1865 - 1867.  Became Duke at the age of 87.
M.P. for Beeralston 1799 - 1830, and Lord of the Treasury 1804 - 1806.
1765 - 1829 James Smithson, scientist. Founded Smithsonian Institute by bequest 64 64 English Scientist.
Post-humously founded the Smithsonian Institute in the USA  in 1846.  This was through his bequest which was held in chancery to be used to set up a scientific foundation - the American govenment claimed this bequest.
D. 1865 Algernon 4th Duke of Northumberland Fourth Duke of Northumberland 1847 - 1865.
Served in the navy in the Napoleonic Wars 1804 - 1815 and retired as admiral.
Created Baron Prudhoe in 1816.
Patron of the arts and sciences, especially archeology.
Firsdt Lord of the Admiralty 1852.
Died childless.
Sir Edmund Prideaux of Forde Abbey, England - 1640 From Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Edmund_Prideaux,_1st_Baronet_of_Ford_Abbey
Edmund Prideaux (died 1659) of Ford Abbey, Thornecombe, Devonshire,[2] was an English lawyer and Member of Parliament, who supported the Parliamentary cause during the Civil War. He was briefly solicitor-general but chose to resign rather than participate in the regicide of King Charles I and was afterwards attorney-general which position he held until he died. During the Civil War and for most of the First Commonwealth he ran the postal service for Parliament.
Prideaux was born at Netherton House in the parish of Farway, near Honiton, Devon, and was the second son of Sir Edmund Prideaux, 1st Baronet (d.1629), of Netherton, Devon (buried at Farway Church near Honiton, Devon - see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prideaux_baronets AND https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farway) an eminent lawyer of the Inner Temple and member of an ancient family which originated at Prideaux Castle in Cornwall, by his second wife, Catherine Edgecombe, daughter of Piers Edgecombe of Mount Edgecumbe in Devonshire (now in Cornwall).

During the four centuries that separated the reign of King Stephen from the Reformation, Forde Abbey, founded in 1146, was one of the most significant Cistercian monasteries in England. The buildings seen today were all in existence in the Middle Ages, forming the Abbot’s and monk’s quarters, their kitchen, refectories, and their chapter house. The abbey church has gone, together with the guest wing and three sides of the cloisters. Though altered, the monastery the monks knew still stands, clothed in the new architectural fashions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.While the final years of so many English monasteries are remembered for their feebleness and decadence, Forde ended in a blaze of glory. Thomas Chard, the last of the thirty-two abbots devoted much of his time and energy to repairing and reconstructing the fabric of the Abbey building. In 1539 Henry VIII ordered the dissolution of the larger monasteries. Chard, his work unfinished handed the Abbey over to the King, and was subsequently made vicar of Thorncombe, the local village.

100 years after the dissolution the Abbey was acquired by
##### Sir Edmund Prideaux, Attorney General to Oliver Cromwell at the time of the Commonwealth. He transformed what must have been a somewhat dilapidated monastery into the magnificent country house you see today, by adding state apartments above the monastic cloisters and transforming the principal rooms with the addition of paneling and ornate plaster ceilings. These ceilings are almost unique in England. The famous tapestries that hang in the Grand Saloon are copies of the cartoons drawn by Raphael for the Sistine Chapel. This set were ordered by Sir Edmund Prideaux from the factory at Mortlake but only reached Forde when Queen Anne presented them to Sir Francis Gwyn, who married Prideaux’s granddaughter, in recognition of his services as Secretary of State for War.

Today the House is the home of the Roper family (Mark Roper), who together occupy and care for the Abbey.

See http://www.fordeabbey.co.uk/

NOTE - In a guide book that is over a hundred years old, Forde Abbey is described as:
"No one can exceed in beauty and interest Forde Abbey, with its outdoor scenery of folded hills striped up and down with hedges, its green meadows, and rich corn fields, its fruitful orchards, graceful trees, and sparkling waters, and, besides these, the highly cultivated gardens in the immediate vicinity of the house, with all their glories of fruit and flower, fern and foliage."

Forde Abbey  which is still a place of beauty was founded in 1138 by Cistercian monks that were offered the site that stands a few miles to the south of Chard, on the banks of the River Axe. And for another 300 years it was described as the  "richest and most learned establishments of the Southwest".

Baldwin who was born of a humble birth rose to become Abbot of Forde and later to Bishop of Worcester and he followed Thomas à Becket as the Archbishop of Canterbury. He organised a crusade throughout the country in 1188 and set out with King Richard two years later on the Third Crusade. Badlwin also crowned Richard while Archbishop of Canterbury. He eventually died from disease which also killed many more of the crusaders in the Holy Land.

When Henry VIII ordered the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539, Thomas Chard and his monks handed the Abbey over, this ended a long tradition of 'long labour and constant devotion'. The abbey and its land was then leased by the king to Richard Pollard and  in the next hundred years it passed into the Poullet, Mallet and Rosewill families. Thomas Chard did a lot to Forde and the cloister which he rebuilt and refectory remain the same today as he left them, he did in 1544.

The abbey was then bought by Edmund Prideux who was Attorney General to firstly King Charles I and then to Oliver Cromwell, and he and Inigo Jones worked together in transforming it into the Italian style, Prideux was given a Baronetcy from Cromwell but a year after the work was done he died and was succeed by Edmund his son.
Edmund was a friend of the Duke of Monmouth and this resulted in him spending time in the Tower for High Treason, he managed to pay a £15,000 ransom though.

The inheritance then went to his daughter Margaret, who in 1702 was married to Francis Gwyn and their descendants lived throughout the 18th century at the abbey. In 1815 the abbey was leased for three years by Jeremy Bentham who was a radical philosopher. Gwyn inherited the estate through marriage in 1702. He was Queen Annes Secretary of War and she presented him with tapestry copies of the Raphael Cartoons. the original hang in the Victoria and Albert museum.

The Gwyn family finally came to an end in 1864 (??1846) and the abbey with its contents was sold on to a Mr Miles who came from Bristol and he then sold it on to a Mrs Bertram Evans who left it to her sons and then to her niece who had married Freeman Roper, his son Geoffrey lived for almost eighty years in the house.

Then during the early part of the 19th century the house was rented by the philosopher Jeremy Bentham. It then became the home to Mark and Lisa Roper.

Though the house has many valuable paintings and other objects of historical interest the most prized possessions are the Mortlake Tapestries which we woven by a Belgian in a Brussels factory that was founded by King Charles I.
Mary Collyns D. 1702 Edmund Prideaux of Forde Abbey Highly educated gentleman - he was known as "the walking encyclopedia".
His tutor was Bishop Tillotson (later Archbishop of Canterbury).
Unwelcome in the Restoration Court of Charles II - because of his father's service to Cromwell.
He was a friend of the rebellious Duke of Monmouth and this resulted in him spending time in the Tower for High Treason, however he obtained a pardon by way of paying a £15,000 ransom.  The pardon was granted by King James II on 20 March 1686.
After marrying the heiress Amy Frauncies he assumed the surname of Fraunceis.
Amy Fraunceis Co-heiress of John Fraunceis, Combe Florey.
She brought several extensive mansions as dowry to the marriage with Edmund Prideaux.
During the time of her husband's imprisonment in the Tower Of London she several times arranged to live there with him in close confinement.  She also actively arranged her husband's ransom.
D. 1709 Margaret Prideaux of Forde Abbey Heiress and third daughter of Edmund Prideaux and hence owner of Forde Abbey.
In 1690 (??or 1702) married her cousin Francis Gwyn Esq. of Llansanor, county of Glamorgan, Wales.
D. 1734 Sir Francis Gwyn Possibly born about 1655 at Llanasanor, Glamorgan, Wales and possibly died in about 1756 (IGI).
Francis Gwyn Esq. of Llansanor, Glamorgan married his cousin Margaret Prideaux in 1690.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Gwyn states he was born at Combe Florey, Somerset, about 1648.
He trained for the profession of law, but being of ample means he went into politics.

Also known as Sir Francis Gwynne.
Descended from the Herbert family, the Earls of Pembroke.
Became Clerk of the Privy Council, and Under Secretary Of State to his cousin Edward, Earl of Conway, and Groom Of The Bedchamber to King Charles II.
Under King James II was appointed Secretary Of The Treasury under Lawrence, Earl of Rochester, Lord Treasurer. 
Sir Francis was appointed by King William and Queen Mary as Secretary and Privy Councillor in Ireland under the Earl of Rochester as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
Under Queen Anne he was appointed as one of the commissioners of trade and plantations.  He was subsequently appointed Secretary At War.
For many years was Member of Parliament for Wells.

The famous tapestries that hang in the Grand Saloon of Forde Abbey are copies of the cartoons drawn by Raphael for the Sistine Chapel.  Queen Anne presented them to Sir Francis Gwyn, who married Prideaux’s granddaughter, in recognition of his services as Secretary of State for War.
Queen Anne also made Francis a knight in honour of these same  services.  He became known as "Squire Gwyn".
Sir Francis came to own Forde Abbey through his marriage to Margaret.
1791 - 1854 John Fraunceis FitzGerald, Knight of Glyn 63 63 John Fraunceis, Knight of Glin (d. 1854) known locally as Ridire na mBan (Knight of the Women) despite his Cantabrigian education was a devotee of the Irish language which he stoke with exceptional fluency.  Some knowledge of the then vernacular was very necessary in the management of a large household and estate in 18th and 19th century Ireland.

It was only because of the long minority of John Fraunceis and the fact he had no other brothers and sisters to be provided for, that the Fitzgerald finances improved.

In 1812 John Fraunceis attained his majority. Educated at Winchester and Cambridge, he is said to have restored the family fortunes by successful gambling and through further sales of land. Though he married an English clergyman's daughter with no great dowry, he was able to build the three Gothic lodges and added the battlements. He also changed the name from Glin House to Glin Castle in keeping with its new status.

John Fraunceis was much given to womanizing but was also interested in the history of his family, an antiquarian, and a fluent Gaelic speaker. He wrote poetry and was a just magistrate. Besides being a benevolent and improving landlord, he loved hunting, was a keen sailor, and entertained hospitably at Glin. The 1820s and 1830s were high noon at the newly christened Glin Castle, a Jane Austen-like world with music and amateur painting for the ladies and of course sport and billiards for the men. The famine years from 1845 cast a deep shadow over Ireland and the 'Knight of the Women', as he was known in Gaelic, died of cholera caught in the Glin poorhouse where he officiated as chairman of the Board of Guardians in 1854.
D. 1781 Thomas FitzGerald, 23rd Knight of Glyn, at Shannon, Ireland For a history of the Knights Of Glin and Glin Castle see the website:  http://www.glincastle.com/history.html

The romantically titled Knights of Glin, a branch of the great Norman family, the FitzGeralds, generically known as the Geraldines of Desmond, were granted lands in West Limerick at the end of the 12th century and became gaelicized through marriage with the daughters of local chieftains. The family has been in County Limerick ever since; I am the 29th generation living there. The Desmonds fought against the English in the 16th and 17th centuries and lost vast estates in the process. Though they were Gaelic speakers, they began to be assimilated into the 'ascendancy' class in the mid-19th century by marrying into planter families useful for their connections and wealth.
Thomas FitzGerald built his first Norman castle on a motte at Shanid, a few miles from Glin, in about 1200. "Shanid Abu", which translated from Gaelic means "Shanid forever" was the Desmond Geraldines' war cry. Their war cry and crests are on the back of the mahogany hall chairs, on the plaster ceiling, the bayonet holders in the hall, and on the many pieces of silver in the house.

The Knights of Glin are a branch of the great Norman family, the Fitzgeralds or Geraldines, Earls of Desmond who were granted extensive lands in County Limerick in the early 14th. century by their Desmond overlords.
The Desmond family were all descended from the Norman Maurice Fitzgerald, a companion-in-arms to Strongbow. Maurice was the son of Gerald of Windsor and his wife the Welsh Princess Nesta.
The Fitzgeralds came to Ireland from Wales in the 1170's as mercenaries, at the request of King Dermot MacMurrough to help him subdue his subjects.
Three of the cadet branches of the Desmond lordship were known as the White Knight, the Knight of Glin and the Knight of Kerry.
The last White Knight, Maurice Og FitzGibbon died in 1611 and the title is now believed to be extinct.
Maurice's son , Thomas FitzMaurice FitzGerald was granted Shanid in West Limerick in 1197 where he built a polygonal keep, on a motte, in about 1200. 'Shanid Abu' means 'Shanid for ever' and was always the Desmond Geraldines war-cry. It can be seen on the coat-of-arms on the ceiling of Glin Castle and on many pieces of silver in the house.
The Knights of Glin were granted the barony of Kenry bordering the banks of the Shannon, near the great Desmond castle of Askeaton. In the Middle Ages the holder of the title was known as 'the Knight of the Glen' or 'the Knight of the Valley'. The Knights held extensive lands along the valley of the river Shannon between Limerick and the sea. They then owned a large number of tower houses in this area including Shanpallas and Cappagh near Rathkeale. The lands around Glin on the Kerry border made up another defensive area marching with those of the Gaelic chieftain the O'Connor of Kerry.
The Glin FitzGeralds survived the Elizabethan, Cromwellian and Jacobite Wars. They then fought against the English with their kinsmen the Earls of Desmond. Thomas FitzGerald was hanged, drawn and quartered by the English forces in Limerick in 1567. He was heir of the then Knight and legend has it that his mother seized his severed head, drank his blood before carrying his dismembered body to Lislaughtin Abbey.
One of the Knights of Glin's castles in Co. Limerick, the old Glin castle (now a ruin in Glin village), was dramatically besieged by Elizabeth's forces in July 1600, during the uprising of the 'Sugan' or 'Straw' Earl of Desmond. Before the siege Sir George Carew captured the Knight's six-year-old son, tied him to the mouth of a cannon and threatened to blow him to pieces unless the Knight did not surrender. The Knight replied bluntly that he was virile and his wife was strong and it would be easy to produce another son.'
The Knight managed to hold on to the last portion of his estates which consisted of some 15, 000 acres and included the castle at Glin.
D. 1803 Colonel John Bateman Fitzgerald, 24th Knight of Glin From an article "Treasures of the Castle" by Desmond FitzGerald The Knight of Glin in The Glencorbry Chronicle (1997) Vol. 1 No. 1 p. 21-27:

Colonel John was about 20 when he formed his first regiment, The Glin Cavalry in 1776, which became known as the Royal Glin Hussars.
The pride of Ireland's ruling classes was present in their newly won, but brief national independence - an independence which was shaken by the French Revolution and finally shattered by the Rebellion of 1798 and the ensuing union with England in 1800. Colonel John supported this union, and  did much to keep his peace in the area during the rebellion and his regiment, the Glin Cavalry, presented him with a magnificent sword with an elaborately chased blue gilt blade by Reid of Dublin in 1800.

His father had died in 1781 and he inherited considerable debts from his rackety, duelling, spendthrift uncles. Their way of dealing with the representatives of La Touche's Bank when they came to collect the rents was to set a mob on them. New leases on the 12, 000 acres of the Glin estate were advertised in March 1782 and in that year Colonel John was listed as an absentee worth £4,000 a year. In fact, he was almost always resident though probably away in England when this list was made. In those days £4,000 a year was a handsome income.

In 1789 Colonel John married his beautiful English wife, Margaretta Maria Fraunceis Gwyn of Forde Abbey, the daughter of a rich west country squire. Her coat of arms is impaled with his on the hall ceiling of Glin Castle, which suggests that the house was still being decorated at the time of their marriage.
Colonel John and his wife Margaretta together built Glin Castle.

Financial problems must have marred the couple's brief decade together at Glin, because in 1791 the Dublin La Touche Bank called in their debts (more than £400,000 in today's money), which went as far back as 1736 and took a case to parliament. In June 1801 a private act of parliament in Westminster was passed which forced the sale of part of the Glin estate in order to pay off the many 'encumbrances' which had accrued during the 18th century. This document mentions that Colonel John had expended ' six thousand pounds and upwards in building a mansion house and offices and making plantations and other valuable and lasting improvements'.

Margaretta died at one of her father's properties, Combe Florey in Somerset, a few months after the act was passed. In 1802, 5,000 acres of Glin were sold, and Colonel John himself died in 1803 leaving an only son and heir, John Fraunceis, age 12. In June 1803 the local newspaper, the 'Limerick Chronicle', advertised sales of the household furniture, the library, a 'superb service of India china', but no paintings or silver. The hall chairs and armorial sideboard in the hall were spared because of their family associations, but carriages, farm stock, and the 'fast sailing sloop' ' The Farmer', 'her cabin nearly fitted up' followed. The FitzGeralds of Glin were literally bankrupt.

Glin castle, home to the 29th Knight of Glin, has been in the FitzGerald family for over 700 years. Situated 32 miles west of Limerick city on the banks of the Shannon River on a 500 acre estate, it is one of the last of the great houses to still be lived in by the original family. Glin Castle has superb interiors with neo classical plasterwork, a rare flying staircase and reportedly the best collection of Irish 18th century furniture, pictures and porcelain in private hands. There are formal gardens and pleasure grounds and a walled kitchen garden. The Castle offers exclusive accommodation to paying guests. There is also an extensive dairy farm attached to the estate. 
1765 - 1801 Margaretta Maria Fraunceis Gwyn of Forde Abbey 36 36 In 1789 Colonel John Fitzgerald, Knight of Glin, Ireland, married his beautiful English wife, Margaretta Maria Fraunceis Gwyn of Forde Abbey, the daughter of a rich west country squire. Her coat of arms is impaled with his on the hall ceiling, which suggests that the house was still being decorated at the time of their marriage.

In June 1801 a private act of parliament in Westminster was passed which forced the sale of part of the Glin estate in order to pay off the many 'encumbrances' which had accrued during the 18th century.

Margaretta died at one of her father's properties, Combe Florey in Somerset, a few months after the act was passed in 1801.

***Desmond FitzGerald, the current Knight Of Glin, has kindly provided the attached image of Margaretta Maria Fraunceis from a locket in his possession.
D. 1866 John Fraunceis Fitzgerald, Knight of Glin, The 'Cracked Knight' John Fraunceis, the 'Cracked Knight', also known as 'Jack the Devil'.

As a result of a fall from his horse at an early age, the knight had become slightly touched.
In 1860 most of the family papers were burned in a bonfire under the tenure of a particularly eccentric ancestor known as the 'Cracked Knight'.
Endless tales are told of him, and his odd behaviour, including riding his horse up the back stairs at Glin. He was a man of immense strength and one day when his beef was not cooked to his liking, he threw it with its silver-plated dish and cover the full length of the dining room and out the window. Habits like these may explain why his wife sought separation from him. He also was said to have enormous power over animals. 'Cracked Jack' was in turn succeeded by his son Desmond, the 'Big Knight', in 1866. 
Desmond Fitzgerald, Knight of Glyn, The 'Big Knight' Desmond, the 'Big Knight', succeeded as Knight of Glyn in 1866. It was Desmond's sensible managing wife, Isabella, who saw the estate through the Land War of 1880.

Florence Arnold-Foster, the niece and adopted daughter of Ireland's chief secretary, visited Glin in 1882. She painted a very gloomy picture of poverty caused by the ruthless cutting down of rents in response to the Land War and the ill feeling that this engendered. This caused the knight to be 'entirely estranged from his people who used to look up to him as the head of an ancient clan and would bring their quarrels before him for arbitration rather than take them to the County Court.' He had to go around his property armed and things did not look up at Glin until his son FitzJohn married Rachel Wyndham Quin in 1897.
D. 1936 Fitzjohn Fitzgerald, Knight of Glyn FitzJohn married Rachel Wyndham Quin in 1897 D. 1901 Lady Rachel Wyndham Quin of Adare Lady Rachel Wyndham Quin of Adare, came from a rich, learned and politically minded family. She only lived at Glin for four years before her tragic early death in 1901 just after the birth of my father. During her short time at Glin she planted some fine specimen trees and daffodils on the hill and even grew violets commercially.
Desmond FitzGerald, 28th Knight of Glin Desmond Fitzgerald, 29th and last Knight of Glyn From the website:  www.askaboutireland.ie:
Glin castle, home to the 29th Knight of Glin, has been in the FitzGerald family for over 700 years. Situated 32 miles west of Limerick city on the banks of the Shannon River on a 500 acre estate, it is one of the last of the great houses to still be lived in by the original family. Glin Castle has superb interiors with neo classical plasterwork, a rare flying staircase and reportedly the best collection of Irish 18th century furniture, pictures and porcelain in private hands. There are formal gardens and pleasure grounds and a walled kitchen garden. The Castle offers exclusive accommodation to paying guests. There is also an extensive dairy farm attached to the estate.

For more information see:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knight_of_Glin
Veronica D. 1763 Jane Towill Daughter of Edmund Towill of Stogumber. 1728 - 1789 John Fraunceis - Created Gwyn of Forde Abbey 1780 61 61 John Fraunceis of Combe Florey inherited the Gwyn estate lands in Devon, Dorset, Somerset and Glamorgan after his kinsman Francis Gwyn & his wife Frances died childless.

On 10 January 1761 he married Jane Towell, daughter of Edward Towell Esq. of Stogumber.
They had 2 children:
- John Fraunceis
- Joanna-Phillippa Fraunceis

After Jane's death on 4 February 1763 (about 1 month after the birth of her daughter Joanna-Phillippa), he married Sarah Escott in 1764 and by her had 3 children:
- James-Escott Fraunceis, died at Oxford aged 19
- William Fraunceis, born 27 April 1774, and married Miss Brereton.  They had 2 children who both died young.  William died on 2 November 1815.
- Margaretta-Marie Fraunceis, who married John Fitzgerald, the Knight of Glin, of Glin Castle, Ireland.  She died in 1802??.  They had a son who succeeded to his father's title of Knight of Glyn.

Frances Gwyn died 1 July 1780.  On 31 July 1780 John Fraunceis assumed the surname Gwyn by royal licence.

John Fraunceis Gwyn of Combe Florey, a wealthy landowner in West England, had several seats including Forde Abbey.

According to a memorial plaque in the chapel at Forde Abbey, in 1780 he assumed the name of Gwyn, according to the terms of the will of his deceased kinsman Francis Gwynn of Ford Abbey and Llansanor, so as to ensure continuance of the name of Gwynn.
He became proprietor of Forde Abbey from 1780 until his death in 1789. 

From the website:  http://www.somerset.gov.uk/archives/dservea/
Repository Somerset Record Office
Level Item
RefNo DD\BR\la/3 
Title - Winsham deed.
Description - Sale by Sir Thomas Miller, Southampton, bt, executor of Frances Gwyn, widow, and executrix of Francis Gwyn, both of Ford Abbey, Devon, to John Francis Gwyn of Combe Florey, Esq., of land in manor of Winsham called Ameran Mead, and lands in Llandaff, formerly of the Cathedral Recites earlier leases from 1738 and contains room by room inventory of goods in Ford Abbey.
Date 1781


He was succeeded at Forde Abbey by John Fraunceis (or Francis) Gwyn Esq. - the last male descendant.

There are also clear records from Glin Castle of his daughter Margaretta Maria Fraunceis Gwyn of Forde Abbey, who married Colonel John FitzGerald, Knight of Glin, Ireland.

There were also old Gwyn family lands in Llansannor, Glamorgan, Wales in records dating from the 1500's up to 1846.

In addition the memorial plaque to the last male heir at Forde Abbey (his son John Fraunceis Gwyn) talks about descent from a long line who flourished in Devon, Somerset and Cornwall.
1771 - 1807 Elizabeth Norman 36 36 Daughter of James Norman, Gent. of Thornecombe.
Married John Fraunceis Gwyn in 1796.

"The wife of J. F. Gwyn of Ford Abbey and late of Combe Florey, Co. Somerset, Esq."
Aged 36 at her death - .  Record from an obscured inscription in the chapel at Forde Abbey.
According to Boyd's Marriage Index from the website www.originsnetwork.com
John F. Gwynn married Elizabeth Norman in 1796 at St. George Hanover Square, Westminster, London.
1809 - 1832 William 23 23 First child.
Moore family tradition says he died young, unmarried and childless in 1849.

However a sworn affidavit from Harriet Francis Pursey dated 29 August 1849 states that her son William Charles Pursey died on 1 May 1832 at Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.  The affidavit further states that William was a bachelor and was buried at Covent Garden Churchyard on 6 May 1832.

Burial records for London (on www.ancestry.com.au) show no records of any Pursey being buried in 1832 - however they do show a burial record for a William Pursey on 24 May 1829 at St. Marylebone, Westminster, Middlesex (ie. London).  He was recorded as living at Castle Street, age 25, born about 1804.  This may be Richard Pursey's son, "our William".
1817 - 1852 Richard Fraunceis 35 35 Second child.
Emigrated to America with his siblings Ophelia, Harriet and Louisa Matilda, and their respective families.
Richard is recorded as being in New York in 1849 and married Emma Pellington there in February 1851.
This fits pretty well with family tradition which says he died in America in 1852 married but childless.
A sworn affidavit from Harriet Francis Pursey dated 29 August 1849 states that her son Richard Fraunceis Pursey was the only surviving male heir of her deceased husband Richard Pursey.
1810 - 1894 Ophelia Phillipa Fraunceis Purssey 83 83 Married and emigrated to America with her husband Mr. Potts and daughter Georgiana, to seek their fortune in the gold rushes there.
They emigrated to America with Ophelia's siblings Richard, Harriet and Louisa Matilda, and their respective families circa 1850 (more likely they emigrated after their mother Harriet died in February 1851).
Ophelia lived with her husband and extended family on Long Island, New York.
She was buried at Yaphank Cemetery, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York.
In her will Harriet Fraunceis Pursey left her estate divided between her brother Thomas, and her grand-daughter Georgiana.
Ophelia produced 1 child - a daughter Georgiana.
1821 - 1892 Harriet Fraunces Pursey 71 71 Fifth and last child.
Married Mr. Samuel Webber at Farway, Devon in 1847.
See http://search.findmypast.com.au/record?id=gbprs%2fdev2%2fmar%2f119707%2f2&_ga=1.168350433.1995048253.1439807319

Moore family tradition says they emigrated to America, to seek their fortune in the gold rush there.  Migrated to America with her siblings Ophelia, Richard and Louisa Matilda, and their respective families in circa 1850 (more likely they emigrated after their mother Harriet died in February 1851).
Harriet produced 1 son who, according to Moore family tradition, married his cousin in America.

In fact, the Moore family tradition that cousins descended from the Pursey line (the children of Ophelia Pursey and Harriet Pursey) married in America, is pretty close. 
John Webber and Georgiana Potts were not cousins by blood, but were related by marriage (Georgiana's aunt Harriet married Samuel Webber, whose brother was John Webber and it was John who married Georgiana) - close enough for loose terminology to call them "cousins".

The England census of 1851 records 2 children for Samuel and Harriet - Mary J. Faunces Webber (aged 3) and William F. Webber (aged 1).  Samuel, Harriet and their 2 children were recorded as visiting Samuel's father William in Salicombe Hamlet, Farway, Devon, on the night of the census.

1822 Samuel Webber Samuel Webber married Harriet Fraunceis Purssey on 11 March 1847 at Farway Church, Devon.
Samuel was listed as resident at Farway, Devon and of full age.  His father was listed as William Webber.
See http://search.findmypast.com.au/record?id=gbprs%2fdev2%2fmar%2f119707%2f2&refreshingcookie=true

From information kindly supplied by Beverly Roberston:
1851 England & Wales Census
(17,666,797 records)
The United Kingdom Census of 1851 was taken on the night of 30 March 1851 and was the second census of England and Wales

Thomas Webber
Gender: Male
Birth: Circa 1793 - Combrawleigh, Devonshire, England
Residence: 1851 - Devinishpitt, Salicombe Hamlet, Farway, Devonshire, England
Age: 58
Marital status: Single
Disability: Blind
Sibling: William Webber
Census: Parish:FarwaySeries:HO107Family:73 Village:Salicombe HamletPiece:1863Line:17 Registration district:HonitonRegistrar's district:HonitonImage:20 County:DevonshireEnumerated by:John Sellers Country:EnglandEnum. District:4 Date:1851-00-00Page:73 See household members
Household
Relation to head; Name; Age
Head; William Webber; 65
Wife; Mary Webber; 51
Son; John Webber; 26
Brother; Thomas Webber; 58
Orphan; William Selway; 10
Servant; Thomas Selway; 17
Servant; Mary Mellish; 35
Visitor's Son; Samuel Webber; 29
Wife Visitor; Harriott Fraunces Webber; 27
Grand Daur Visitor; Mary J Faunces Webber; 3
Grand Son Visitor; William F Webber; 1
Visitor; Georgena Jemima Potts; 17  (Comment by Beverly Roberston - I believe this is most likely our Georgiana Johanna Potts who married John Webber (name in this census) in St. Peters Episcopal Church, Albany, New York Aug 19 1857)

Potts 1834 - 1918 Georgiana Joanna Potts 83 83 The Moore family tradition that cousins descended from the Pursey line (the children of Ophelia Pursey and Harriet Pursey) married in America, is pretty close. 
John Webber and Georgiana Potts were not cousins by blood, but were related by marriage (Georgiana's aunt Harriet married Samuel Webber, whose brother was John Webber and it was John who married Georgiana) - close enough for loose terminology to call them "cousins".

Georgiana received a significant inheritance from her grandmother Harriet Fraunceis Pursey.
Emigrated to Long Island, America, to join her family members there in 1855.
Married John Webber on August 19, 1857, at St. Peters Episcopal Church, Albany, New York.
For more information see David Dew's website http://dew1234.tribalpages.com/

It seems that John Webber knew Georgiana in Devon, England - she was was recorded as a visitor at John's home in the 1851 census  - see the census information in the entry for William Webber born 1786.
After Georgiana emigrated to Long Island, America in 1855, John emigrated there too in 1857 - presumably with the intent to marry her, which he did in August that year.

From information supplied by Beverly Roberston - New York Census 1900:
Georgianna J Webber
Gender: Female
Birth: Jan 1834, England
Residence: 1900, Brookhaven Township, Election District 7, Suffolk, New York, USA 
Age: 66
Marital status: Widower
Immigration: 1855
Race: White
Ethnicity: American
Number of children: 9
Number of living children: 8
Child: Samuel R Webber
Census
Township: Election District 7,   Enum. District: 744,   Family: 7
County: Suffolk,    Series: T623,   Line: 27
State: New York,   Roll: 1241165,   Image: 273
Date: 1900,   Sheet: 1 

1825 - 1894 John Webber 68 68 Moore family tradition says he married his cousin, aunt Ophelia's only daughter Georgiana.
For more information see David Dew's website http://dew1234.tribalpages.com/

David Dew supplied the following information about John Dew:
Came from Devonshire, England in 1857, settled in Albany, New York. 
Left Albany in 1860 and settled to Yaphank in 1860.
On Jan 15th last, Mr. John Webber at the age of 69 years, passed away to his long home. Mr. Webber was a victim of dropsy and that he was a great sufferer is confirmed by his words on the night he died, when he prayed "O Heavenly Father! Take me out of this misery."
The deceased was born in Honiton, Devonsire County, England, April 1st. 1825. He came to this country
in 1857 and settled in Albany N.Y. where, on Aug. 19th of the same year he was married in St. Peters Episcopal Church to Georgina J. Potts. He left Albany in 1860 and came to Yaphank where he spent the remaining thirty -four years of his life.
"Uncle John" was a man of sterling integrity; careful, and honest in his dealings, attentive to his labors, liberal with his neighbor and one who felt that there was a strong distinction between right and wrong. By his economy and frugality he had accumulated a comfortable home with a sufficient surplus to make him independent for more than mans allotted term of years, but the death messenger chooses who he will.

1867 - 1961 Elsie Webber 94 94 Ongoing family descendants in America.

According to her daughter Mary Jessie Dew, Elsie was born on a farm on Long Island Avenue about a mile away from the 'Bellport Station', which extended from the railroad track to the Middle Island Line which is north of what is now the Expressway
In a Double Marriage Edward Dew was united to Elsie Webber and Elsie's brother John F. Webber was united to Sophia Von Rhee.
Quotes from Mary Jessie Dew


Spouse: Edward Dew
Marriage: June 1875
Children:
Edward Samual Dew 1901 - 1985
Mary Jessie Dew 1904 - 2000

Siblings
Webber, George H. ???? - 1947
Webber, John Fraunces 1858 - 1925
Webber, Ophelia Louisa b.1863
Webber, Charles Fraunis 1865 - 1940
Webber, Samual R. 1870 - 1946
Webber, William Thomas 1872 - 1952
Webber, Esther M. 1875 - 1952

For more information about descendants of this family, see David Dew's websites http://dew1234.tribalpages.com/ and https://www.myheritage.com/names/david_dew and on ancestry.com

David Dew is a direct descendant of Elsie Webber through her daughter Mary Jessie Dew, David's mother.  David still lives with his family on Long Island, New York, America, close to where the Purssey and Webber families first set up home in the 1850's.

Lachlan Lewis Samuel Simpson Known as "LLS".
Successful businessman.
He ran Simpson's Big Store in Rupanyup.
Rupanyup is a country town east of Horsham in western Victoria.
She was a (??great) grand-daughter of Captain John MacArthur who first introduced merino sheep to Australia (he also brought rabbits for his hounds to hunt - these rabbits have since became a major pest throughout Australia).  He brought these famous merino sheep, and the rabbits, on board ship from England to Sydney, Australia.

She died in childbirth.
Lach Neil Simpson Lach's mother died giving birth.
As a child he was cared for by his uncle Doug and his wife Min.
Lach later went to Geelong Grammar as a boarder, and he rowed for the school.

Lach gave his cousin Kath Ballard (nee Moore) a saddle - this got her to buy a horse and get into jumping and fox hunting.

Lach subsequently entered business, moved to Perth, Western Australia, and ultimately became Sales Manager for National Cast Regis.

Lachlan Simpson is living with his family in Perth, Western Australia.
Postal Address - P.O. Box 838, Cottesloe, Western Australia. 6911
1894 - 1985 Phillis Margaret Wise 91 91 First husband was Col. Twining.
Second husband was Justice James Henry Moore.
1788 - 1831 Dinah Good 43 43 Daughter of Reuben Good, Gent. of Winsham

According to the records of the Marriage Licence Allegations - Faculty Office - 1701 to 1850, available at the website http://www.originsnetwork.com/BritishOrigins/BOShowRecordsFO125.aspx
John Francis Gwynn is recorded as marrying Dinah Good on 4 November 1815.
Eleanor Popham Youngest daughter of Sir Francis Popham of Littlecot, county of Wilts. Edward Gwyn Edward Gwyn - Landowner in Llansanor, county Glamorgan, Wales.
Descended from the Herbert family, the Earls of Pembroke.
His only son and heir was Francis Gwyn.

There were old Gwyn family lands in Llansannor, Glamorgan county, Wales in records dating from the 1500's up to 1846.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llansannor:
Llansannor (Welsh: Llansanwyr) is a small village in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales, United Kingdom.

It has a population of roughly 200 people. It contains a parish church, a pub (the City Inn, now closed), a primary school and a village hall, which has recently been rebuilt thanks to the efforts of the parishioners.

Llansannor is traditionally a parish, until the last century comprising little more than a collection of farms spread out across Llansannor Hill (Mynydd y Fforest) and now incorporating the present hamlet of City and a collection of houses built in the grounds of Llansannor Court between the 1970s and 90's. Present day farms in the parish include Church Farm, Gelli Goll Farm and Windmill Farm. While agriculture remains important to the character of the area, many residents of the village are retirees or commute to work in nearby Cardiff.
1877 Edith Alice Moore "Edie"
First child.
Married late in life but childless.
In later life after her husband died, lived with her sister Anne at Park Street, St. Kilda.
Louisa Emma Moore "Lou"
Third child.
Married late in life but childless.
"Aunt Lou" was a writer - wrote for the Riverland Magazine, and wrote a book about aboriginal legends illustrated by Kath Ballard (??never printed).
She was known to be quite a romantic.
Had a hard life.

She also left some hand-written notes about the family history traditions.
Annie Mary (??or Emily) Moore Tenth child.
Nurse
Never married.  Died childless.
In later life lived with her sister Edie at Park Street, St. Kilda.
1899 - 1989 Stanley Claude Moore 90 90 Eleventh child.
Married but never produced children.

Went to Melbourne High School then Melbourne University, following after his older brother James.
Completed an engineering degree there.
Then took up teaching posts at Ballarat, Sydney and Bathurst. 
He also held positions in the public service and as a judge's associate.
Had an interest in mining - he had several mining leases, and the sale of one of these "made his fortune".  However he was not a good money manager, and later went to his brothers James and Edwin for financial assistance.
Arthur Moore Eighth child.
Died at 1 year of age.
D. 1918 Richard James Moore Fourth child.
In World War I he enlisted in July 1916 and embarked on 23 November 1916 as a Private n the 21st Infantry Battallion A.I.F.
Richard joined his brothers and they all went to France with the AIF to fight in the trenches under General John Monash.
Richard was later promoted to Sergeant in the 21st Battlalion, 6th Infantry Brigade.
Killed in WWI aged 35 on 5 October 1918 at the Australian assault on the village of Mont Brehan - the last day that the Australian infantry were in action in France.
1897 - 1923 William Charles Moore 26 26 "Billy"
Born either 1885 or 1897.
Fifth child.
Served in WW1 as an Anzac at Gallipoli and in France.
Enlisted December 1914 and embarked for Gallipoli on 20 March 1915 as a Private with the 14th Infantry Battalion.

Married but had only 1 stillborn child.
William Charles died with appendicitis and resultant peritonitis, while his wife Mary was pregnant.  The shock of his death caused Mary to miscarry, and the child was stillborn.
Alfred Ernest Moore Sixth child.
At 5 years old he fell from a wagon onto his head.  He sustained permanent brain damage, but never received any treatment.  He became "odd" and developed epilepsy.
He died young (age 27) and childless.
1879 - 1972 "Edwin" Thomas Edwin Moore 93 93 "Uncle Edwin".
Second child - eldest son

In World War I he and his brother Billy fought at Gallipoli. 
Edwin enlisted in 1915 and embarked for Gallipoli with the reinforcements on 18 November 1915 as a Sergeant in the 4th Field Artillery Brigade.                    
Subsequently they returned to England where their brothers Richard, Walter and Jim joined them.  The brothers had some good times together.
They all then went to France with the AIF to fight in the trenches under General John Monash.

When Thomas Fraunceis died, the extensive Deer Park property was divided between the 2 older sons - Edwin and Walter.  Edwin inherited part of the family property at Elmhurst and built a new house - initially a small house.  Later a large double storey brick house was built in 1940 and was called "Huntingdon".
Wrote a poetry book about the local aboriginal legends "Black Magic" - published by a local printer in the Elmhurst area.



D. 1963 Walter John Moore Seventh child.
Served in WWI in France with his brothers Edwin, Jim, Billy and Richard.  He enlisted in June 1916 and embarked on 16 December 1916 as a Private on the 38th Infantry Battlalion, A.I.F.
Won a medal for knocking down a German aeroplane from the trenches by tossing a grenade into it.

In 1938 he had the original weatherboard Deer Park homestead pulled down and he built the present home of "Deer Park" at a cost of 1,689 pounds.
He suffered from severe asthma.
"Una" Edith Wyuna Richard "John" Moore Has 2 adopted children.
Inherited "Deer Park" in 1963, and then sold it on his retirement in 1979.
1894 - 1984 Clara Mildred Widdy 90 90 1933 - 2007 "Ted" Edwin Gwynne Moore 73 73 Looked after Huntingdon for many years.
Ran sheep and cattle on the 1,000 acre farm, and grew wheat and barley.
Keen para-glider and yachtsman.
He also devoted a lot of his life to the local CFA brigade, was a pioneer in radio communications and a very good farm engineer.
He was always more than happy to share his knowledge and encourage others with projects. 
Ted retired from running Huntingdon in 2001 when the effects of Parkinson's Disease became too severe. 
He contracted encephalitis at 14 years old at cadet camp at Puckapunyal - this led to Parkinson's Disease in later life.
1932 Beverley Start 1965 Phillip Edwin Moore Has looked after Huntingdon since 2001 Alison Louise Moore Occupational Therapist.
Lines in Bennalong Bay, Tasmania
Helen Wyuna Moore Olda Ann Willes Catherine Nesta Honor 1891 - 1892 Louisa Naomi Moore 1 1 Died 1892 aged 10 months at Elmhurst.
Father was James William Moore.
Mother was Sarah Stickland.

 
Sam Dyer From Glenlogie. Mr. Gillies Mary Guthrie McKechnie Born in Scotland.
The shock of the sudden death of her husband from appendicitis in 1923, caused the pregnant Mary to miscarry.
Very helpful person and did a lot of child-minding.
"A good Christian soul".
Regularly attended Scots Church in Collins Street, Melbourne.
Margaret D'Arcy "Nan" Annie Emily Moore Estelle Louise Moore Composer of classical music. Mr. McKay Jill Croker John Kenneth Moore Mr. Keith Gavin Keith Died by drowning in Lake Bolac aged 3. Mr. Meagher Antony Lloyd Meagher John ??David Meagher John Horsley Meagher Corrine Jeanette Meagher David McKay Richard McKay Suzanne McKay Emma Pellington D. 1750 Algernon Baron Percy, 7th Duke of Somerset, Earl of Northumberland Created Lord Hertford and served in the army with Marlborough, and had a distinguished military career.
From  1722 to 1750 was Baron Percy and 12th Earl of Northumberland 1722 - 1750.
Made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
1748 succeeded to the Dukedom of Somerset - 7th Duke of Somerset.
1666 - 1722 Elizabeth Baroness Percy, Duchess of Somerset 56 56 At age 4 her father died, and so became Baroness Percy from 1670 - 1722.
Married as a child to Lord Ogle who died soon after.
Then married to Thomas Thynne of Longleat - Elizabeth left him soon after marriage due to his bad character, and she fled to Holland.  In 1681 Thomas was murdered by a Swdish adventurer Count Konigsmark.
1682 Elizabeth married Charles Seymour 6th Duke of Somerset - "the Proud Duke".
She became Mistress of the Robes to Queen Anne.
D. 1748 Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset Instrumental in the Revolution of 1688 and for the accession of the Hanoverian Dynasty to the English Crown in 1714. Lady Elizabeth Wriothesley Daughter and co heir of Thomas 4th earl of Southampton.
Married 1662 to Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland. Assumed without question to have been the last of the direct male line of Louvaine - Percy.
Children: Lady Elizabeth Percy, Lord Henry Percy, Lady Henrietta Percy.

D. 1670 Josceline 11th Earl of Northumberland Succeeded to the Earldom as 11th. Earl of Northumberland in 1668.
However died 2 years later in 1670 in Turin.
He had no male heirs so the Earldombecame extinct.
The Barony of Percy was passed to his only daughter Elizabeth.

Josceline Percy
Born: 4-Jul-1644
Died: 21-May-1670   Died while in Turin.
11th Earl of Northumberland. Assumed without question to have been the last of the direct male line of Louvaine - Percy.
Children:
Lady Elizabeth Percy
(Born: 26-Jan-1667,  Died: 1722.  Daughter and sole heir succeeded to the Barony de Percy.),
Lord Henry Percy
(Born: 1668,  Died: 1669. Died young), Lady Henrietta Percy.
(Died in infancy)


1st Earl of Beverley D. 1899 Algernon George 6th Duke of Northumberland 6th Duke of Northumberland 1867 - 1899.
Served in the army.
Member of Parliament 1831 - 1832 and 1852 - 1865.
1858 Civil Lord of the Admiralty.
1859 Vice-President of the Board of Trade.
1878 - 1880 Lord Privy Seal.
D. 1918 Henry 7th Duke of Northumberland 1874 - 1875 Treasurer of the Household.
1868 - 1885 Member of Parliament.
1887 summoned to the House of Lords as Baron Louvaine.
1899 - 1918 Seventh Duke of Northumberland.
D. 1930 Alan Ian 8th Duke of Northumberland Captain in the Grenadier Guards in the Boer War 1901 - 1902.  Was awarded the Queens Medal abd 4 clasps.
1908 fought in the Sudan campaign, especially at Kordofan - was awarded the Egyptian medal with clasp.
Aide-de-Camp to Earl Grey, Governor-General of Canada.
During WWI served with the Grenadier Guards - was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.
Played a leading role for the English in Ireland during the rebelilion of the 1920's - was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
Eighth Duke of Northumberland 1918 - 1930.
Helen 1913 - 1940 Henry George Alan 9th Duke of Northumberland 27 27 Eldest son of Alan Ian 8th Duke of Northumberland.
Was 9th Duke of Northumberland 1930 - 1940.
Killed at Pecq, Flanders serving with the 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards during the Dunkirk Retreat.
D. 1988 Hugh 10th Duke of Northumberland Second son of Alan Ian 8th Duke of Northumberland.
Became 10th Duke of Northumberland 1940 - 1988.
Awarded K.G., G.C.V.O., K.St.J., T.D., F.R.S.
Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland 1956 - 1984.
In WWII served with the Northumberland Hussars.
President of the Royal Agricultural Society of England 1956 and 1962.
Chairman of the Agricultural Research Council 1958 - 1968.
Chancellor of the University of Newcastle 1964 - 1988.
Chairman of the Medical Research Council 1969 - 1977.
Chairman of the Committee of Enquiry on Foot and Mouth Disease 1968 - 1969.
Lord Steward of H.M. Household 1973 - 1988.
Master of the Percy Foxhounds 1940 - 1988.

### In 1946 he married Lady Elizabeth Montagu Douglas Scott, heir of the Douglas family.  This marriage finally united the houses of Percy and Douglas, who had been hereditary enemies for many centuries.
Lady Elizabeth Montagu Douglas Scott Elder daughter of the 8th Duke of Buccleuch, Scotland. 1953 - 1995 Henry Alan Walter Richard 11th Duke of Northumberland 42 42 Fellow of the Royal Society of the Arts. D. 1668 Algernon 10th Earl of Northumberland D. 1632 Henry 9th Earl of Northumberland - "The Wizard Earl" D. 1585 Henry 8th Earl of Northumberland Protestant D. 1572 Thomas Created 7th Earl of Northumberland in 1557 Catholic.
1557 Queen Mary restored the Earldom of Northumberland to the Percies after a gap of 20 years.
So in 1557 - 1572 Thomas became the 7th Earl of Northumberland.
1568 took part in the Rising of the North against Queen Elizabeth I.
1572 at York beheaded for treason.
Later beatified as a martyr by the Roman Catholic Church.
Succeeded by his brother Henry.
D. 1537 Henry 6th Earl of Northumberland - "The Unthrifty" Lover of Anne Boleyn, before she was courted by King Henry VIII.
He died without a son.
D. 1536 Sir Thomas Percy 1536 - Took a leading part in the uprising against King Henry VIII, known as the "Pilgramage of Grace" in protest against the dissolution of the monasteries.
Executed at Tyburn for treason.
Sir Ingelram Percy 1536 - Took a leading part in the uprising against King Henry VIII, known as the "Pilgramage of Grace" in protest against the dissolution of the monasteries.
Imprisoned in the Tower of London, but never executed.
D. 1527 Henry 5th Earl of Northumberland - "The Magnificent" 1520 took part in the Field of the Cloth of Gold - the pageant organised by King Henry VIII and King Francis I of France. D. 1489 Henry Created 4th Earl of Northumberland in 1469 Imprisoned in the Tower of London 1461 - 1469 after his father was killed at the Basttle of Towton fighting against King Edward IV.
Restored to his estates in 1469, and formally invested as Earl of Northumberland 1473.
1471 - Fought by the side of King Edward IV at the Battle of Barnet against Warwick the Kingmaker and his brother Montagu (bothof whom were killed).
1489 - Murdered by the mob for helping to raise an unpopular tax.
D. 1461 Henry 3rd Earl of Northumberland Fought with the House of Lancaster in repeated battles against the Yorkists and King Edward IV in the Wars of the Roses.
1461 killed at the Battle of Townton, the bloodiest battle ever on English soil.
After Henry's death his estates were confiscated and were bestowed by King Henry IV on Lord Montagu.
D. 1198 Sir Henry de Percy Isabel de Brus 1193 - 1245 William de Percy 6th Baron de Percy 52 52 Ellen de Balliol 1228 - 1272 Sir Henry de Percy 7th Baron de Percy 44 44 Eleanor Plantaganet 1923 - 1923 William Moore William Thomas Bruce Moore died as an infant James Henry (?? or William) Moore He was born at Armstrong goldfield in the 1850's. 1856 Mary Matilda (??or Harriet Mary) Moore She was born at Linton goldfield in the 1850's.
Penny Holmes (nee Moore) has provided information that Harriet Mary Moore was born on 30 June 1856, Registration Number 6669.
Sarah Strickland   Percy Moore "The Sydney Moores".
An artist - male.
Listed in the book "Echoes of Elmhurst" written by an Elmhurst local.
By repute came from "No-where Creek in Elmhurst".  Note that the homestead of the Deer Park, Elmhurst property is on No-where Creek.
Col. D. Twining John Twining 1952 Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland Ralph Percy succeeded to the title in October 1995. He was born in 1956 and educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1979 he married Jane Richard, whose family lives in the Borders. They have four children. The Duke trained as a land surveyor and was in practice in the south of England before returning to Northumberland in 1986. He has been managing the family's estates since 1992. Jane Richard George Percy 8th son of Henry Percy, the 8th Earl of Northumberland. Emma Joynes Emma was born in England and at age 19 took passage on a ship bound for Melbourne, Australia, in order to live with her uncle who had a property in Tasmania.
However on board ship she met Thomas Askew Leach.  They fell in love and married on board ship.
They arrived in Melbourne in 1854 and immediately went to the Victorian goldfields to try their luck.  Being unlucky in finding gold, they then set up the general store at the Glenpatrick Diggings which did a thriving business.  Here they had 3 children, the eldest being Annie.  However unfortunately Mr. Leach suddenly died from an acute illness.
Emma continued running the general store, and later married Thomas McLaughlan from Ireland - he was another adventurer looking for gold.  They had a further 3 children.
1825 - 1861 Thomas Askew Leach 36 36 Medical student in England.
Left his studies to try his luck in the goldrush in Victoria, Australia.
On board ship he met Miss Emma Joynes, aged 19.  They fell in love and married.
When the ship docked in Melbourne in 1854 they immediately set off for the goldfields.  They did not have much luck finding gold, and so they set up a general store on the Glenpatrick Diggings where they did a thriving business.
Unfortunately Mr. Leach suddenly fell sick and died, keaving his widow and 3 children.

### From the Listing at the Victorian Births, Deaths and Marriage Register at   https://online.justice.vic.gov.au/bdm/index-search?action=getHistIdxSearchCriteria:
The Record of Deaths in Avoca says:
Thomas Askew Leach
Profession - storekeeper
Died - 27 August 1861 at Glenpatrick, Avocashire, Victoria
13 years in Victoria at time of death
Death - supposed instantaneous death from apoplexy due to excessive and continued drinking of spiritous liquors
Age - 36
Wife - Emma Joynes - married in Melbourne 1849
Birth Place - London  (Well Street, Hackney, Middlesex, England)
Father - Samuel Forest Leach - surgeon
Mother - Annie Wrightson Price
Children :
- Edwin Charles (born 1854)
- Anne Wrightson (born 1856)
- Alice (born 1859)
Buried at Glenpatrick - undertaker Thomas Webber Moore (father-in-law of his daughter Anne)

Thomas McLaughlan He came from Ireland to try his luck at the goldfields. 1854 Edwin Charles Leach 1859 Alice Leach ??Thomas This may have been a local Elmhurst identity Thomas McLaughlan born 1862 and died 1944.  Amongst other things he was a keen gold miner and assisted in attracting a company to dig a deep shaft mine not more than 2 kms from Huntingdon.  He farmed in the Glenpatrick area.  Thomas married Margaret Macdonald (born 1878 and died 1942) in 1920.

***This information about a possible identification has been kindly supplied by Mr. Ken Macdonald of Elmhurst.
1852 - 1945 Richard Percy Moore 93 93 Originally from Elmhurst thence Appin to Kerang where he settled.

Penny Holmes (nee Moore) has provided information that Richard Percy Moore died at Kerang on 28 July 1945, Registration Number 16464.

After Thomas Fraunceis Moore married Annie, Richard Percy and his wife Jane, set off with brother Thomas Fraunceis and wife Annie to Appin (on the Loddon River near Kerang) and jointly pioneered a property there.  They also promoted the 12 Mile Canal Company (later the 12 Mile Irrigation Trust) - which was the first group of men to create & use gravity irrigation from a canal in Victoria, via a 9 mile long canal which was built to service an area 3 miles wide on the east side of the Loddon River.  This was later mirrored by the Sheepwash Company (later the Leagluir and Merring Irrigation Trust) which built a similar canal to service the west side of the Loddon River.  Subsequently the Goo Scheme took over the 2 canals and added them to its own canal network.

20 years later in about 1895 the partnership ended when Thomas Fraunceis and his wife Annie returned to Elmhurst to take over the Deer Park property from Thomas Fraunceis' father. 
Richard Percy then settled in Kerang with his family.

In 1896 he received a letter from hiis cousin Opelia F. Webber in North America with news of the family there.
Jane Manly Joseph Hall His family owned an adjoining property at Nowhere Creek, Elmhurst. 1988 Edward Moore 1990 Louisa Moore D. 1918 Gordon Simpson Killed in WW1. 
Embarked for the war from Melbourne on 14 February 1917 as a Driver on the troop ship Osterley.  Mortally wounded at the Australian attack on outposts of the Hindenberg Line on 18 September 1018. Listed as Gunner at the time of his death in France on 20 September 1918.
Buried in St. Sever Cemetary Extension, Rouen, France.
He had a memorial tree planted for him on Ballarat's Avenue Of Honour.
1828 - 1910 Rebecca Willis 82 82 Born in Overstone - a small village outside of Northampton, England. 1823 - 1895 Samuel Simpson 72 72 Miner.

Baptism records from www.bmdregisters.co.uk, kindly obtained by Narelle Smith, Victoria, Australia, show that Samuel was born on 25 April 1823.  He was baptised on 24 March 1826 recorded on the Methodist Circuit of Kettering, Northamptonshire.  Parents were William Simpson, carpenter, and Ann Eaton, residing at Pytchley, Northamptonshire.

Born in Northamptonshire England.
Lived in Pytchley near in Northamptonshire before marrying Rebecca Willis from nearby Overstone.
Married to Rebecca Willis on 26 December 1848 in Overstone - a small village near Northampton in the Daventry district of the county of Northamptonshire in England.

Migrated to South Australia from Overstone in Northamptonshire, England in 1850.  Samuel may well have migrated to Australia with his wife and ste child after his mother died in 1850.  He and his family had obtained an assisted passage to South Australia - through support from his local parish minister Reverand Abner Brown.

Records at www.slsa.sa.gov.au/fh/passengerlists/1850Constance.htm  show that S. Simpson with wife and child departed from Plymouth, England, on 18-7-1850 on board the sailing ship Constance (Captain G. B. Godfrey), and arrived at Port Adelaide, South Australia, on 26-10-1850.

After 2 years moved to Victoria.

According to family stories, he brought his wife and children to Australia for the Victorian gold rush.  He chose not to be a miner, but set up a grocery store for the Ballarat goldfields.  This business thrived and so they settled in Ballarat, Victoria.
1858 Edwin Simpson Murray Simpson Lived in Ballarat.
Killed in WW1, and has a memorial tree planted in his honour in Ballarat's Avenue Of Honour.
Les Simpson Lived in Ballarat.
Helped with soldier resettlement after WW1, especially with organising selections for the soldiers in Robinvale and Mildura.
Barbara Simpson Lived in Cheltenham with her husband. 0879 - 0929 Charles III King Of France 50 50 Charles III "the Simple" (September 17, 879 - October 7, 929) was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. He ruled as King of France from 898 to 922.

The posthumous son of King Louis II of France and Adelaide, Charles married Frederonne who died in 917 and he then married Eadgifu, the daughter of King Edward I of England, on October 7, 919.

As a child, Charles was prevented from succeeding to the throne at the time of the death in 884 of his half-brother Carloman or at the time Charles the Fat was deposed in 887 after he had succeeded Carloman. Instead, Odo, Count of Paris, succeeded Charles the Fat. Nonetheless, Charles became king at the death of Odo in 898.

The kingdom of Charles the Simple was almost identical with today's France, but he was obliged to concede what would become known as Normandy to the invading Norsemen.

In 922 some of the barons revolted and crowned Robert I, brother of Odo, king. In 923, at the battle of Soissons, King Robert was killed, but Charles was also defeated. Rudolph, Duke of Burgundy was elected king, and Charles III was imprisoned.

Charles III died on October 7, 929, in prison at Péronne, Somme, France and was buried there at the L'abbaye de St-Fursy. His son with Eadgifu would eventually be crowned King Louis IV of France.

Preceded by:
Odo King of Western Francia Succeeded by:
Robert I

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_the_Simple"
Eadgifu of England Charles III married Eadgifu, the daughter of King Edward I of England, on October 7, 919.

Eadgifu was the daughter of Edward the Elder of Mercia. She was the second wife of King Charles III of France (preceded by Frederonne) and mother to King Louis IV of France.

0910 - 0965 Hedwige Of Saxony 55 55 Hedwige of Saxony (c910-May 10, 965) was daughter, sister, and mother of kings. She was the daughter of Henry I the Fowler, and his wife Matilda of Ringelheim. After her brother Otto the Great came to power, an alliance and marriage was arranged with Hugh the Great in 936. Her son, Hugh Capet, was crowned King of France in 987 D. 0956 Hugh The Great Hugh, The Great (d. 956), duke of the Franks and count of Paris, son of King Robert I of France and nephew of King Odo or Eudes, was one of the founders of the power of the Capetian house in France.

Hugh's first wife was Eadhild, a sister of the English king, Athelstan. At the death of Rudolph, duke of Burgundy, in 936, Hugh was in possession of nearly all the region between the Loire and the Seine, corresponding to the ancient Neustria, with the exception of the territory ceded to the Normans in 911. He took a very active part in bringing Louis IV (d'Outremer) from England in 936, but in the same year Hugh married Hedwige, sister of the emperor Otto the Great, and soon quarrelled with Louis.

Hugh even paid homage to Otto, and supported him in his struggle against Louis. When Louis fell into the hands of the Normans in 945, he was handed over to Hugh, who released him in 946 only on condition that he should surrender the fortress of Laon. At the council of Ingelheim (948) Hugh was condemned, under pain of excommunication, to make reparation to Louis. It was not, however, until 950 that the powerful vassal became reconciled with his suzerain and restored Laon. But new difficulties arose, and peace was not finally concluded until 953.

On the death of Louis IV, Hugh was one of the first to recognize Lothair as his successor, and, at the intervention of Queen Gerberga, was instrumental in having him crowned. In recognition of this service Hugh was invested by the new king with the duchies of Burgundy (his suzerainty over which had already been nominally recognized by Louis IV) and Aquitaine. But his expedition in 955 to take possession of Aquitaine was unsuccessful. In the same year, however, Giselbert, duke of Burgundy, acknowledged himself his vassal and betrothed his daughter to Hugh's son Otto. At Giselbert's death (April 8, 956) Hugh became effective master of the duchy, but died soon afterwards, on the 16th or 17th of June 956.

In the Divine Comedy Dante meets the soul of Duke Hugh in Purgatory, lamenting the avarice of his descendants.

0938 - 0996 Hugh Capet - First Capetian King of France 58 58 Hugh Capet (French: Hugues Capet) (938 - October 24, 996) was King of France from 987 to 996. Capet is a nickname for "wearing a cape".

Born in 938 in Paris, he came from a powerful and influential family of the Germanic aristocracy of France, two members of which had already been elected King of France in the ninth and tenth centuries. Hugh Capet was the eldest son of Hugh the Great, then the most powerful man in the kingdom, maker of kings, and of Hedwige of Saxony (c.910-c.965), daughter of King Henry I (the Fowler) of Germany and sister of German Emperor Otto I. Hugh Capet wanted to become a lay abbot, and in 980 arranged to move the relics of St. Valery to Amiens Cathedral. He inherited his father's vast estates and became the most powerful noble of his time. From 978 to 986, Hugh Capet allied himself with the German emperors Otto II and Otto III and with archbishop Adalbero of Reims to dominate the weak Carolingian king, Lothair. By 985, he was king in all but name. After Lothair and his son died in early 987, the archbishop of Reims convinced an assembly of nobles to elect Hugh Capet as their king. He was crowned King of France at Noyon, Picardie on July 3, 987, the first of the Capetian dynasty to rule France.

Hugh Capet possessed minor properties near Chartres and Anjou. Between Paris and Orléans he possessed towns and estates amounting to approximately 400 square miles (1,000 km²). His authority ended there, and if he dared travel outside his small area, he risked being captured and held for ransom or even murdered. Indeed, there was a plot in 993 masterminded by the Bishop of Laon and Eudes I of Blois to deliver Hugh Capet into the custody of Otto III. The plot failed, but the fact that no one was punished illustrates how tenuous his hold on power was. Beyond his power base, in the rest of France, there were still as many codes of law as there were fiefdoms. The country operated with 150 different forms of currency and at least a dozen languages. Uniting all this into one cohesive unit was a formidable task and a constant struggle between those who wore the crown of France and its feudal lords. As such, Hugh Capet's reign was marked by numerous power struggles with the vassals on the borders of the Seine and the Loire. Beyond his realm, the investiture and then deposition of Arnulf, nephew of the duke of Lorraine, as archbishop of Reims involved the king and bishops in conflict with Pope John XV that was not yet resolved at Hugh Capet's death in 996.

While Hugh Capet's military power was limited and he had to seek military aid from the Duke of Normandy, his unanimous election as king gave him great moral authority and influence.

Hugh Capet married Adelaide of Aquitaine (952-1004), daughter of Duke William III of Aquitaine. Their children were:

Avoise (970-1013)
Robert II (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031)
Alice (974-1079)
Gilette (born c.976)
Gisele (born c.978)
Hugh Capet died on October 24, 996 in Paris, and was interred in the Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son, Robert II.

King of France

Preceded by:
Louis V
Succeeded by:
Robert II

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Capet_of_France"
1031 - 1083 Matilda Of Flanders 52 52 Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 - 1083) was queen of England, the wife of William the Conqueror

She was the daughter of count Baldwin V of Flanders, and Adela Capet (1000-1078/9), daughter of Robert II of France.

A spoiled young lady used to speaking her mind and getting her way, the 4'2"-tall (Britain's smallest queen) Matilda (or "Maud") told the representative of William, Duke of Normandy (later king of England as William the Conqueror), who had come asking for her hand, that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard. When that was repeated to him, William, all 5'10" of him, rode from Normandy to Bruges, found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse (some said by her long braids), threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off. After that, she decided to marry him, and even a papal ban (on the grounds of consanguinity) did not dissuade her.

There were rumors that Matilda had been in love with the English ambassador to Flanders, a Saxon so pale he was nearly an albino, named Brihtric (but nicknamed "Snow"), who was already married. Whatever the truth of the matter, years later when she was acting as regent for William in England, she used her authority to confiscate Brihtric's lands (without even any formal charges, much less a trial) and throw him into prison, where he died under suspicious circumstances consistent with poisoning.

When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, the Mora, out of her own money and gave it to him. For many years it was thought that she had something to do with creating the Bayeux Tapestry, but historians no longer believe that; it seems to have been commissioned by William's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and made by Saxons in Kent.

Matilda bore William ten children, and he was believed to have been faithful to her, at least up until the time their son Robert rebelled against his father and Matilda sided with Robert against William. After she died, in 1083 at the age of 51, William became tyrannical, and people blamed it on his having lost her. She was buried at St. Stephen's in Caen, Normandy (then, France now), and William was eventually buried there, too. Years later their graves were opened and their bones measured, which is how we know how tall they were.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matilda_of_Flanders"
1027 - 1087 William The Conqueror - First Norman King of England 60 60 William I (c. 1027 - September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. Known alternatively as William of Normandy, William the Conqueror and William the Bastard, he was the illegitimate and only son of Robert the Magnificent, Duke of Normandy, and Herleva, the daughter of a tanner. Born in Falaise, Normandy, now in France, William succeeded to the throne of England by right of conquest by winning the Battle of Hastings in 1066 in what has become known as the Norman Conquest.

No authentic portrait of William has been found. In the patriotic print he is wearing plate armour that was invented generations after his death.

Early life history
William was born the grandnephew of Queen Emma, wife of King Ethelred the Unready and later of King Canute.

William succeeded to his father's Duchy of Normandy at the young age of 7 in 1035 and was known as Duke William II of Normandy. He lost three guardians to plots to usurp his place. King Henry I of France knighted him at the age of 15. By the time he turned 19 he was himself successfully dealing with threats of rebellion and invasion. With the assistance of King Henry, William finally secured control of Normandy by defeating the rebel Norman barons at Caen in the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes in 1047.

He married Matilda of Flanders, against the wishes of the pope in 1050 or 1051 at the Cathedral of Notre Dame at Eu, Normandy (now in Seine-Maritime). He was 23, she was 21. Their marriage produced four sons and six daughters (see list below).

His half-brothers Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain played significant roles in his life.

Conquest of England
See main article Norman Conquest.

Upon the death of William's cousin King Edward the Confessor of England (January 1066), William claimed the throne of England, asserting that the childless Edward had named him his heir during a visit by William (probably in 1052) and that Harold Godwinson, England's foremost magnate, had reportedly pledged his support while shipwrecked in Normandy (c. 1064). Harold made this pledge while in captivity and was reportedly tricked into swearing on a saint's bones that he would give the throne to William. Even if this story is true, however, Harold made the promise under duress and so may have felt free to break it.

The assembly of England's leading notables known as the Witenagemot approved Harold Godwinson’s coronation which took place on January 5, 1066 making him King Harold II of England. In order to pursue his own claim, William obtained the Pope's support for his cause. He assembled an invasion fleet of around 600 ships and an army of 7000 men. He landed at Pevensey in Sussex on September 28, 1066 and assembled a prefabricated wooden castle near Hastings as a base. This was a direct provocation to Harold Godwinson as this area of Sussex was Harold's own personal estate, and William began immediately to lay waste to the land. It may have prompted Harold to respond immediately and in haste rather than await reinforcements in London.

King Harold Godwinson was in the north of England and had just defeated another rival, King Hardrada of Norway. He marched an army of similar size to William's 250 miles in 9 days to challenge him at the crucial battle of Senla, which later became known as the Battle of Hastings. This took place on October 14, 1066. According to some accounts, perhaps based on an interpretation of the Bayeux Tapestry commemorating the Norman victory, Harold was killed by an arrow through the eye, and the Anglo Saxon forces fled giving William victory.

This was the defining moment of what is now known as the Norman Conquest. The remaining Saxon noblemen surrendered to William at Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire and he was acclaimed King of England there. William was then crowned on December 25, 1066 in Westminster Abbey.

Although the south of England submitted quickly to Norman rule, resistance continued, especially in the North for six more years until 1072. Harold's sons attempted an invasion of the south-west peninsula. Risings occurred in the Welsh Marches and at Stafford. Most seriously William faced separate attempts at invasion by the Danes and the Scots. William's defeat of these led to what became known as the harrowing of the North in which Northumbria was laid waste to deny his enemies its resources. The last serious resistance came with the Revolt of the Earls in 1075.

William's reign
William initiated many major changes. In 1085, in order to ascertain the extent of his dominion, William commissioned the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey of England's productive capacity similar to a modern census. He also ordered the building of a number of castles, among them the Tower of London. His conquest also led to Norman French replacing English as the language of the ruling classes, for nearly 300 years.

William is said to have deported large numbers of the old landed classes into slavery through Bristol. Many of the latter ending up in Umayyad Spain and Moorish lands, converting and taking high positions in the state.

He died aged 60 at the Convent of St Gervais, near Rouen, France, on September 9, 1087 from abdominal injuries received from his saddle pommel when he fell off a horse at the Siege of Mantes. He was buried in the St. Peter's Church in Caen, Normandy. In a most unregal postmortem, William's corpulent body would not fit in the stone sarcophagus, and burst after some unsuccessful prodding by the assembled bishops, filling the chapel with a foul smell and dispersing the mourners. [1] (http://historyhouse.com/in_history/william/)

William was succeeded in 1087 as King of England by his younger son William Rufus and as Duke of Normandy by his elder son Robert Curthose. This led to the Rebellion of 1088. His youngest son Henry also became King of England later, after William II died without a child to succeed him.

[edit]
Children of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders
Some doubt exists over how many daughters there were. This list includes some entries which are obscure.

Robert Curthose (c. 1054–1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano, daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano
Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055–?), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England (Her existence is in some doubt.)
Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056–1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen
William Rufus (1056–1100), King of England
Richard (1057-c. 1081), killed by a stag in New Forest
Adela (c. 1062–1138), married Stephen, Count of Blois
Agatha (c. 1064–c. 1080), betrothed to (1) Harold of Wessex, (2) Alfonso VI of Castile
Constance (c. 1066–1090), married Alan IV Fergent, Duke of Brittany; poisoned, possibly by her own servants
Matilda (very obscure, her existence is in some doubt)
Henry Beauclerc (1068–1135), King of England, married (1) Matilda (or Edith) of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland, (2) Adeliza of Louvain

King of England 1066 - 1087

Preceded by:
Edgar Ætheling
Succeeded by:
William II

Duke of Normandy
1047 -1087
Preceded by:
Robert the Magnificent
Succeeded by:
Robert Curthose
1056 - 1100 William II King of England 44 44 William II (called "Rufus", perhaps because of his red-faced appearance, or maybe his bloody reign) (c. 1056 - August 2, 1100) was the second son of William the Conqueror and was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers also over Scotland, Wales and Normandy.

Although William was an effective soldier, he was a ruthless ruler and was little liked by those he governed; according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he was "hated by almost all his people." However, it is not surprising that the chroniclers of his time took a dim view of Rufus, because many literate men of the day were men of the Church, against which Rufus fought hard and long.

William himself seems to have been a flamboyant character, and his reign was marked by his bellicose temperament. He never married or had illegitimate children; it has been suggested that he was homosexual.

Early years
William's exact date of birth is unknown, but it was some time between the years 1056 and 1060. He was born in his father's duchy of Normandy, which would be inherited in due course by his elder brother, Robert Curthose. His father's favourite son, William succeeded to the throne of England on his father's death, but there was always hostility between him and his eldest brother, though they became reconciled after an attempted coup in 1091 by their youngest brother, Henry.

Relations between the three brothers had never been excellent; Orderic Vitalis relates an incident that took place at Laigle, in 1077. William and Henry, having grown bored with casting dice, decided to make mischief by pouring fetid water on their brother Robert from an upper gallery, thusly infuriating and shaming him.

Appearance
According to William of Malmesbury, William Rufus was "thickset and muscular with a protruding belly; a dandy dressed in the height of fashion, however outrageous, he wore his blond hair long, parted in the centre and off the face so that his forehead was bare; and in his red, choleric face were eyes of changeable colour, speckled with flecks of light" (Barlow).

England and France
The division of William the Conqueror's lands into two parts presented a dilemma for those nobles who held land on both sides of the Channel. Since the younger William and Robert were natural rivals, these nobles worried that they could not hope to please both of their lords, and thus ran the risk of losing the favor of one ruler or the other (or both of them). The only solution, as they saw it, was to unite England and Normandy once more under one ruler. The pursuit of this aim led them to revolt against William in favor of Robert in the Rebellion of 1088, under the leadership of the powerful Bishop Odo of Bayeux, who was a half-brother of William the Conqueror. William, however, won the support of the English with promises of better government and defeated the rebellion, thus securing his authority in this precarious early period after becoming king. In 1090 he invaded Normandy, crushing Robert's forces and forcing him to cede a portion of his lands. The two made up their differences and William agreed to help Robert recover lands lost to France, notably Maine.

Power struggles
Much of William's reign was spent feuding with the church; after the death of Archbishop Lanfranc in 1089, he appropriated ecclesiastical revenues to which he was not entitled, and for this he was much criticised. In 1093 Anselm was made Archbishop of Canterbury, and this led to a long period of animosity between church and state. William and Anselm disagreed on a range of ecclesiastical issues, and in October 1097, Anselm went into exile. The problem was somewhat mitigated for William by his ability to claim the revenues of the archbishopric of Canterbury as long Anselm remained in exile, and Anselm remained in exile until the reign of William's successor, Henry I.

In 1095, Robert de Mowbray, the earl of Northumbria, would not come to William's court, and William subsequently led an army against him and defeated him; the earl was dispossessed and imprisoned. Another noble, William of Eu, was also accused of treachery and blinded and castrated. That same year, William II also made an unsuccessful foray into Wales. He tried again in 1097 with an equal lack of success. He returned to Normandy in 1097 and from then until 1099 campaigned in France, securing and holding northern Maine but failing to seize the French-controlled part of the Vexin region. At the time of his death he was planning to occupy Aquitaine in south-western France.

William also quarrelled with the Scottish king, Malcolm III, forcing him to pay homage in 1091 and seizing the border city of Carlisle in 1092. However, he gained effective control of the Scottish throne after Malcolm's death in 1093 when he backed a successful bid by Edgar Atheling to dethrone Malcolm III's brother Donald Bane in favor of his nephew, also named Edgar. The newly crowned King Edgar, who ruled Scotland from 1097 to 1107, thus owed his position to William.

In 1096, William's brother Robert joined the First Crusade. He needed money to fund this venture and pledged his duchy to William in return for a payment of 10,000 marks; a sum equalling about one-fourth of William's annual revenue. William raised the money by levying a special, heavy, and much-resented tax upon the whole of England. William then ruled Normandy as regent in Robert's absence - Robert did not return until September 1100, one month after William's death.

The Court of William II
William Rufus had a notorious disregard for the church; his most passionate detractors are found among clergymen. Eadmer relates two incidents in which William Rufus either convinced converted Jews to return to Judaism, or attempted to do so. During his quarrels with Anselm of Canterbury, the king declared that "he hated him much yesterday, that he hated him much today, and that he would hate him more and more tomorrow and every other day."

William of Malmesbury decries William Rufus' court, which he describes as being filled by "effeminate" young men in extravagent clothes mincing about in "shoes with curved points". Orderic Vitalis makes mention of the "fornicators and sodomites" who held favor during William Rufus' reign, and remarks approvingly that when Henry became king, one of his first acts was to have his courtiers shorn of their long hair.

The unusual death of William II
Perhaps the most memorable event in the life of William Rufus was his death, which occurred while hunting in the New Forest. He was killed by an arrow through the heart, but the circumstances remain unclear.

On a bright August day in 1100, William organised a hunting trip in the New Forest. An account by Orderic Vitalis described the preparations for the hunt:

...an armourer came in and presented to him (Rufus) six arrows. The King immediately took them with great satisfaction, praising the work, and unconscious of what was to happen, kept four of them himself and held out the other two to Walter Tyrrel... saying It is only right that the sharpest be given to the man who knows how to shoot the deadliest shots.
On the subsequent hunt, the party spread out as they chased their prey, and William, in the company of Walter Tirel (or Tyrell), Lord of Poix, became separated from the others. It was the last time that William was seen alive.

William was found the next day by a group of local peasants lying dead in the woods with an arrow piercing his lungs. William's body was abandoned by the nobles at the place where he fell, because the law and order of the kingdom died with the king, and they had to flee to their English or Norman estates to secure their interests. Legend has it that it was left to a local charcoal-burner named Purkis to take the king's body to Winchester Cathedral on his cart.

According to the chroniclers, William's death was not murder. Walter and William had been hunting together when Walter let loose a wild shot that, instead of hitting the stag he aimed for, struck William in the chest. Walter tried to help him, but there was nothing he could do. Fearing that he would be charged with murder, Walter panicked, leapt onto his horse, and fled. A version of this tale is given by William of Malmesbury in his Chronicle of the Kings of the English (c. 1128):

The day before the king died he dreamt that he went to heaven. He suddenly awoke. He commanded a light to be brought, and forbade his attendants to leave him. The next day he went into the forest... He was attended by a few persons... Walter Tirel remained with him, while the others, were on the chase. The sun was now declining, when the king, drawing his bow and letting fly an arrow, slightly wounded a stag which passed before him... The stag was still running... The king, followed it a long time with his eyes, holding up his hand to keep off the power of the sun's rays. At this instant Walter decided to kill another stag. Oh, gracious God! the arrow pierced the king's breast.
On receiving the wound the king uttered not a word; but breaking off the shaft of the arrow where it projected from his body... This accelerated his death. Walter immediately ran up, but as he found him senseless, he leapt upon his horse, and escaped with the utmost speed. Indeed there were none to pursue him: some helped his flight; others felt sorry for him.
The king's body was placed on a cart and conveyed to the cathedral at Winchester... blood dripped from the body all the way. Here he was buried within the tower. The next year, the tower fell down. William Rufus died in 1100... aged forty years. He was a man much pitied by the clergy... he had a soul which they could not save... He was loved by his soldiers but hated by the people because he caused them to be plundered.
To some chroniclers, such an 'Act of God' was a just end for a wicked king. However, over the centuries, the obvious suggestion that one of William's many enemies may have had a hand in this extraordinary event has been repeatedly made. Even chroniclers of the time point out that Walter was renowned as a keen bowman, and unlikely to fire such an impetuous shot. And William's brother Henry, who was among the hunting party that day, benefitted directly from William's death, as he was shortly after crowned king.

Abbot Suger, another chronicler, was Tirel's friend and sheltered him in his French exile. He said later:

It was laid to the charge of a certain noble, Walter Tirel, that he had shot the king with an arrow; but I have often heard him, when he had nothing to fear nor to hope, solemnly swear that on the day in question he was not in the part of the forest where the king was hunting, nor ever saw him in the forest at all.

The Rufus Stone
A stone known as the Rufus Stone marks the spot where some believe he fell. Grid reference: SU270124 (http://www.rhaworth.myby.co.uk/oscoor_a.htm?SU270124_region:GB_scale:25000)

The inscription on the Rufus Stone reads:

Here stood the oak tree, on which an arrow shot by Sir Walter Tyrell at a stag, glanced and struck King William the Second, surnamed Rufus, on the breast, of which he instantly died, on the second day of August, anno 1100. King William the Second, surnamed Rufus, being slain, as before related, was laid in a cart, belonging to one Purkis, and drawn from hence, to Winchester, and buried in the Cathedral Church, of that city.

Fictional treatments
William Rufus is a major character in Valerie Anand's historical novel, King of the Wood (1989).

William II is indirectly the subject of two historical novels by George Shipway, called The Paladin and The Wolf Time. The main character of the novels is Walter Tirel (or Tyrell) the supposed assassin of King William, and the main thrust of the plot of the novels is that the assassination was engineered by Henry.

References
Barlow, Frank. William Rufus. Berkeley, CA : University of California, 1983. ISBN 0300082916
Douglas, David C. William the Conqueror; the Norman impact upon England. Berkeley, CA : University of California, 1964. ISBN 0520003500
Hollister, C. Warren. "The Strange Death of William Rufus." Speculum, 48.4 (1973): 637-653.
Mason, Emma. "William Rufus: myth and reality." Journal of Medieval History, 3.1 (1977): 1-20.
Warren, W. L. "The Death of William Rufus." History Today, 9 (1959)
Orderic Vitalis
William of Malmesbury
Eadmer


King of England
1087 - 1100
Preceded by:
William I
Succeeded by:
Henry I

1064 - 1134 Robert Duke of Normandy 70 70 Robert (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. 1054 - February 10, 1134) was a Duke of Normandy. He was the eldest son of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders, an unsuccessful claimant to the throne of England, and a participant in the First Crusade. His reign as Duke is noted for the discord with his brothers in England, eventually leading to the absorption of Normandy as a possession of England.

His birthdate is usually given as 1054, but may have been in 1051.

In his youth, he was reported to be courageous and skillful in military exercises. He was, however, also prone to a laziness and weakness of character that discontented nobles and the King of France exploited to stir discord with his father William.

In 1077, he instigated his first insurrection against his father as the result of a prank played by his younger brothers William Rufus and Henry, who had poured water through the floor into Robert's chambers. As a result of the insult, Robert attempted to seize the castle of Rouen and afterwards spent several years wandering in aimless fighting before being reconciled with his father.

In 1087, the father died, having divided the Norman dominions between his two eldest sons. To Robert, he granted the Duchy of Normandy and to William Rufus he granted the Kingdom of England. Of the two sons, Robert was considered to be much the weaker and was generally preferred by the nobles who held lands on both sides of the English Channel, since they could more easily circumvent his authority. At the time of their father's death, the two brothers made an agreement to be each other's heir. However, this peace lasted less than a year when barons joined with Robert to displace Rufus in the Rebellion of 1088. It was not a success, in part because Robert never showed up to support the English rebels.

Robert married Sybil, daughter of Geoffrey of Brindisi, Count of Conversano (and a grandniece of Robert Guiscard). Their son, William Clito, was born October 25 1102 and became heir to the Duchy of Normandy. Sybil, who was admired and often praised by the chroniclers of the time, died shortly after the birth. William of Malmesbury claims she died as a result of binding her breasts too tightly; both Robert of Torigny and Orderic Vitalis suggest she was murdered by a cabal of noblewomen led by her husband's mistress, Agnes Giffard.

Robert took as his close advisor Ranulf Flambard, who had been previously a close advisor to this father.

In 1096, Robert left for the Holy Land on the First Crusade. At the time of his departure he was reportedly so poor that he often had to stay in bed for lack of clothes. In order to raise money for the crusade, he mortaged his duchy to his brother William for the sum of 10,000 marks.

He had agreed with William II to name each other the Heir Presumptive of England and Normandy respectively. When William II died on August 2, 1100, Robert should have inherited the throne of England. But he was on his return journey from the Crusade, allowing their younger brother Henry to seize the crown of England for himself. Upon his return, Robert, urged by Flambard, led an invasion of England to retake the crown from his brother Henry. In 1101, Robert landed at Portsmouth with his army, but his lack of popular support among the English enabled Henry to resist the invasion. Robert was forced by diplomacy to renounce his claim to the English throne in the Treaty of Alton.

In 1105, however, Robert's continual stirring of discord with his brother in England prompted Henry to invade Normandy. In the next year, Henry defeated Robert's army decisively at the Battle of Tinchebray and claimed Normandy as a possession of the English crown, a situation that endured for almost a century. Captured after the battle, Robert was imprisoned for the rest of his life.

In 1134, he died while imprisoned in Cardiff Castle. He was buried in the abbey church of St. Peter in Gloucester, where an elaborate sepulchre was later built. The church subsequently has become Gloucester Cathedral.

Duke of Normandy
1087 - 1105

Preceded by:
William I of England 
Succeeded by:
Henry I of England




1096 - 1154 Stephen King of England 58 58 Stephen (1096 - October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings.

Stephen was born at Blois in France, the son of Stephen, Count of Blois, and Adela, daughter of King William I of England, and thus the brother of Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester. He became Count of Mortain in about 1115, and married Matilda, daughter of the Count of Boulogne, in about 1125, who shortly after became Countess of Boulogne. Stephen became joint ruler in 1128. In 1150 he ceased to co-rule, and in 1151, the County was given to his son, Eustace IV. When Eustace died childless, Stephen's next living son, William inherited the territory.

Before the death of King Henry I of England in 1135, the majority of the barons of England swore to support Empress Maud, Henry's daughter, and her claim to the throne. However, Stephen of Blois, who was a grandson of William the Conqueror through his mother, Adela, and had been raised at Henry's court, laid claim to the throne. He also claimed his uncle Henry had changed his mind on his deathbed, and named Stephen as his heir. Once Stephen was crowned, he gained the support of the majority of the barons as well as Pope Innocent II. The first few years of his reign were peaceful, but by 1139 he was seen as weak and indecisive, setting the country up for a civil war, commonly called The Anarchy.

Stephen had many traits that made him seem superficially fit for kingship: his high birth, his descent from the Conqueror, his handsomeness, his bravery and good nature. But he possessed none of the ruthlessness necessary for the ruthless times he lived in; indeed, Walter Map says of Stephen: "He was adept at the martial arts but in other respects little more than a simpleton."

Bad omens haunted him before the Battle of Lincoln. Stephen was facing his rebellious barons Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester and the Earl of Chester. He fought so bravely in the battle that his battle-axe shattered. He drew a sword and continued fighting until it broke as well, as he was captured by a knight named William de Cahagnes. Stephen was defeated and he was brought before his cousin, Maud.

In April, 1141, Stephen was defeated and imprisoned at Bristol. His wife, Matilda, kept faith, and Empress Maud was forced out of London. With the capture of her most able lieutenant, her illegitimate half-brother, the Earl of Gloucester, Maud was obliged to release Stephen from captivity, and he was restored to the throne in November of the same year. In December 1142, Empress Maud was besieged at Oxford, but she managed to escape.

In 1147, Empress Maud's adolescent son, Henry, decided to assist in the war effort by raising a small army of mercenaries and invading England. Rumors of this army's size terrified Stephen's retainers, although in truth the force was very small. Having been defeated twice in battle, and with no money to pay his mercenaries, the young Henry appealed to his uncle Robert for aid but was turned away. Desperately, and in secret, the boy then asked Stephen for help. According to the Gesta Stephani, "On receiving the message, the king, who was ever full of pity and compassion, hearkened to the young man..." and bestowed upon him money and other support. Despite this generosity, there is no evidence for the rumors that Stephen was Henry's biological father.

Stephen maintained his precarious hold on the throne for the remainder of his lifetime. However, following the death of his son and heir, Eustace, in 1153, he was persuaded to reach a compromise with Maud whereby her son, Henry (from her second marriage to Geoffrey of Anjou), would succeed Stephen on the English throne.

Stephen died at Dover, and was buried in Faversham Abbey, which he had founded with Matilda in 1147

Besides Eustace, Stephen and Matilda had two other sons, Baldwin (d. before 1135), and William of Blois, Count of Mortain and Boulogne and Earl of Surrey or Warenne. They also had two daughters, Matilda and Marie of Boulogne. As well as these children, Stephen fathered at least three bastards, one of whom, Gervase, became Abbot of Westminster.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (the Peterborough Chronicle second continuation) provides a moving and succinct appraisal of Stephen's reign:

"In the days of this King there was nothing but strife, evil, and robbery, for quickly the great men who were traitors rose against him. When the traitors saw that Stephen was a good-humoured, kindly, and easy-going man who inflicted no punishment, then they committed all manner of horrible crimes . . . And so it lasted for nineteen years while Stephen was King, till the land was all undone and darkened with such deeds, and men said openly that Christ and his angels slept".
The monastic author says, of The Anarchy, "this and more we suffered nineteen winters for our sins."

King of England
1135 - 1154
Preceded by:
Henry I
Succeeded by:
Henry II

Duke of Normandy
1135 - 1154
Preceded by:
Henry I
Succeeded by:
Henry II

Count of Boulogne
1128-1150
with Matilda I
Preceded by:
Matilda I
Succeeded by:
Matilda I
1067 - 1137 Adela of Blois 70 70 Adela of Blois (c. 1067 - March 8, 1137?) was by marriage countess of Blois, Chartres, and Meaux. She was a daughter of William the Conqueror and the mother of both Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester.

Her birthdate is generally believed to have been between 1060 and 1064; however, there is some evidence she was born after her father's accession to the English throne in 1066. She was the favorite sister of King Henry I of England; they were probably the youngest of the Conqueror's children. She was a high-spirited and educated woman, with a knowledge of Latin.

She married Stephen Henry, son and heir to the count of Blois, sometime between 1080 and 1084, probably in 1083. Stephen inherited Blois, Chartres and Meaux in 1089, making him one of the wealthiest men of his day. He was a proud and self-indulgent man, who had no intention of taking the cross until Adela insisted upon it. Stephen reluctantly left to join the First Crusade, along with his brother-in-law Robert Curthose.

Adela and Stephen's children were:

Guillaume, Count of Chartres
Theobald II of Champagne
Odo of Blois, died young.
Stephen of Blois
Lucia-Mahaut, married Richard, Earl of Chester
Agnes of Blois, married Hugh III of Le Puiset
Henry of Blois
Adela was regent for her husband during his extended absence as a leader of the First Crusade (1095-1098), and when he returned in disgrace it was at least in part at her urging that he returned to the east to fulfill his vow of seeing Jerusalem. She was again regent in 1101, continuing after her husband's death on this second crusading expedition in 1102, for their children were still minors. Orderic Vitalis praises her as a "wise and spirited woman" who ably governed her husband's estates in his absences and after his death.

She employed tutors to educate her elder sons, and had her youngest son Henry pledged to the Church at Cluny. Adela quarrelled with her eldest son Guillaume, "deficient in intelligence as well as degenerate", and had his younger brother Theobald replace him as heir. Her son Stephen left Blois in 1111 to join his uncle's court in England.

Adela retired to Marcigny in 1120, secure in the status of her children. Later that same year, her daughter Lucia-Mahaut was drowned in the wreck of the White Ship alongside her husband. She lived long enough to see her son Stephen seize the English throne, but died soon after.

1045 - 1102 Stephen Count of Blois 57 57 Stephen II Henry (c. 1045 - May 19, 1102), (French, Etienne Henri) Count of Blois and Count of Chartres, was the son of Theobald III, Count of Blois, and Garsinde du Maine.

In about 1080, in Chartres, France, Stephen married Adela of Normandy, a daughter of William the Conqueror. Their eldest son, Guillaume, was disinherited, supposedly for mental weakness; he was made Count of Chartres instead. Blois then passed to the second son, Theobald. Their third son Stephen of Blois became king of England after Henry I of England died without a male heir and the English did not think Henry I's daughter Empress Maud a suitable ruler because of her sex. Stephen and Adela's youngest son was Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester. A daughter, Lucia-Mahaut de Blois, perished in the White Ship disaster.

Count Stephen was one of the leaders of the First Crusade, often writing enthusiastic letters to Adela about the crusade's progress. He returned home in 1098 during the lengthy siege of Antioch, without having fulfilled his crusading vow, which would have been completed only if he had made it all the way to Jerusalem. He was pressured by Adela into making a second pilgrimage, and along with others who faced the same pressures after returning home prematurely, he joined the minor crusade of 1101. In 1102, Stephen was killed in battle at the age of 57, during the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem's siege of Ascalon in what is now Israel.

1133 - 1189 Henry II - First Platagenet King of England 56 56 Henry II (March 5, 1133 - July 6, 1189), ruled as Duke of Anjou and as King of England (1154 - 1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. His sobriquets include "Curt Mantle" (because of the practical short cloaks he wore), "Fitz Empress," and sometimes "The Lion of Justice," which had also applied to his grandfather Henry I. He ranks as the first of the Plantagenet or Angevin Kings.

Following the disputed reign of King Stephen, Henry's reign saw efficient consolidation. Henry II has acquired a reputation as one of England's greatest medieval kings.

Biography
He was born on March 5, 1133 at Le Mans, to the Empress Maud and her second husband, Geoffrey the Fair, Count of Anjou. Brought up in Anjou, he visited England in 1149 to help his mother in her disputed claim to the English throne.

Prior to coming to the throne he already controlled Normandy and Anjou on the continent; his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152 added her land holdings to his, including vast areas such as Touraine, Aquitaine, and Gascony. He thus effectively became more powerful than the king of France - with an empire (the Angevin Empire) that stretched from the Solway Firth almost to the Mediterranean and from the Somme to the Pyrenees. As king, he would make Ireland a part of his vast domain. He also maintained lively communication with the Emperor of Byzantium Manuel I Comnenus.

In August 1152, Henry, previously occupied in fighting Eleanor's ex-husband Louis VII of France and his allies, rushed back to her, and they spent several months together. Around the end of November 1152 they parted: Henry went to spend some weeks with his mother and then sailed for England, arriving on 6 January 1153. Some historians believe that the couple's first child, William, Count of Poitiers, was born in 1153.

During Stephen's reign the barons had subverted the state of affairs to undermine the monarch's grip on the realm; Henry II saw it as his first task to reverse this shift in power. For example, Henry had castles which the barons had built without authorisation during Stephen's reign torn down, and scutage, a fee paid by vassals in lieu of military service, became by 1159 a central feature of the king's military system. Record-keeping improved dramatically in order to streamline this taxation.

Henry II established courts in various parts of England, and first instituted the royal practice of granting magistrates the power to render legal decisions on a wide range of civil matters in the name of the Crown. His reign saw the production of the first written legal textbook, providing the basis of today's "Common Law".

By the Assize of Clarendon (1166), trial by jury became the norm. Since the Norman Conquest, jury trials had been largely replaced by trial by ordeal and "wager of battel" (which English law did not abolish until 1819). Provision of justice and landed security was futher toughened in 1176 with the Assize of Northampton, a build on the earlier agreements at Clarendon. This reform proved one of Henry's major contributions to the social history of England. As a consequence of the improvements in the legal system, the power of church courts waned. The church, not unnaturally, opposed this, and found its most vehement spokesman in Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, formerly a close friend of Henry's, and his Chancellor. Henry had appointed Becket to the archbishopric precisely because he wanted to avoid conflict.

The conflict with Becket effectively began with a dispute over whether the secular courts could try clergy who had committed a secular offence. Henry attempted to subdue Becket and his fellow churchmen by making them swear to obey the "customs of the realm", but controversy ensued over what constituted these customs, and the church proved reluctant to submit. Following a heated exchange at Henry's court, Becket left England in 1164 for France to solicit in person the support of Pope Alexander III, who was in exile in France due to dissention in the college of Cardinals, and of King Louis VII of France. Due to his own precarious position, Alexander remained neutral in the debate, although Becket remained in exile loosely under the protection of Louis and Pope Alexander until 1170. After a reconciliation between Henry and Thomas in Normandy in 1170, Becket returned to England. Becket again confronted Henry, this time over the coronation of Prince Henry (see below). The much-quoted, although probably apochryphal, words of Henry II echo down the centuries: "Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?" Although Henry's violent rants against Becket over the years were well documented, this time four of his knights took their king literally (as he may have intended for them to do, although he later denied it) and travelled immediately to England, where they assassinated Becket in Canterbury Cathedral on December 29, 1170.

As part of his penance for the death of Becket, Henry agreed to send money to the Crusader states in Palestine, which the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar would guard until such time as Henry arrived to make use of it on pilgrimage or crusade. Henry delayed his crusade for many years, and in the end never went at all, despite a visit to him by Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem in 1184 and being offered the crown of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1188 he levied the Saladin tithe to pay for a new crusade; the chronicler Giraldus Cambrensis suggested his death was a divine punishment for the tithe, imposed to raise money for an abortive crusade to recapture Jerusalem, which had fallen to Saladin in 1187.)

Henry's first son, William, Count of Poitiers, had died in infancy. In 1170, Henry and Eleanor's fifteen-year-old son, Henry, was crowned king, but he never actually ruled and does not figure in the list of the monarchs of England; he became known as Henry the Young King to distinguish him from his nephew Henry III of England.

Henry and his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, had five sons and three daughters: William, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey, John, Matilda, Eleanor, and Joan. Henry's attempts to wrest control of her lands from Eleanor (and from her heir Richard) led to confrontations between Henry on the one side and his wife and legitimate sons on the other.

Henry's notorious liaison with Rosamund Clifford, the "fair Rosamund" of legend, probably began in 1165, during one of his Welsh campaigns, and continued until her death in 1176. However, it was not until 1174, at around the time of his break with Eleanor, that Henry acknowledged Rosamund as his mistress. Almost simultaneously, he began negotiating to divorce Eleanor and marry Alys, daughter of King Louis VII of France and already betrothed to Henry's son, Richard. Henry's affair with Alys continued for some years, and, unlike Rosamund Clifford, Alys allegedly gave birth to one of Henry's illegitimate children.

Henry also had a number of illegitimate children by various women, and Eleanor had several of those children reared in the royal nursery with her own children; some remained members of the household in adulthood. Among them were William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, whose mother was Ida, Countess of Norfolk; Geoffrey, Archbishop of York, son of a woman named Ykenai; Morgan, Bishop of Durham; and Matilda, Abbess of Barking.

Henry II's attempt to divide his titles amongst his sons but keep the power associated with them provoked them into trying to take control of the lands assigned to them (see Revolt of 1173-1174), which amounted to treason, at least in Henry's eyes. Gerald of Wales reports that when King Henry gave the kiss of peace to his son Richard, he said softly, "May the Lord never permit me to die until I have taken due vengeance upon you."

When Henry's legitimate sons rebelled against him, they often had the help of King Louis VII of France. Henry the Young King died in 1183. A horse trampled to death another son, Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany (1158 - 1186). Henry's third son, Richard the Lionheart (1157 - 1199), with the assistance of Philip II Augustus of France, attacked and defeated Henry on July 4, 1189; Henry died at the Chateau Chinon on July 6, 1189 and lies entombed in Fontevraud Abbey, near Chinon and Saumur in the Anjou Region of present-day France. Henry's illegitimate son Geoffrey, Archbishop of York, also stood by him the whole time and alone among his sons attended on Henry's death-bed.

Richard the Lionheart then became king of England. He was followed by King John, the youngest son of Henry II, laying aside the claims of Geoffrey's children Arthur of Brittany and Eleanor.

Appearance
Peter of Blois left a description of Henry II in 1177: "...the lord king has been red-haired so far, except that the coming of old age and gray hair has altered that color somewhat. His height is medium, so that neither does he appear great among the small, nor yet does he seem small among the great... curved legs, a horseman's shins, broad chest, and a boxer's arms all announce him as a man strong, agile and bold... he never sits, unless riding a horse or eating... In a single day, if necessary, he can run through four or five day-marches and, thus foiling the plots of his enemies, frequently mocks their plots with surprise sudden arrivals...Always are in his hands bow, sword, spear and arrow, unless he be in council or in books."

Fiction
The treasons associated with the royal and ducal successions formed the main theme of the play The Lion in Winter, which also served as the basis of a film starring Peter O'Toole and Katharine Hepburn. In 2003, a mini-series with Patrick Stewart and Glenn Close in the leading roles reprised the story and its title.

Henry II and his sons King Richard and King John also provided the subjects of the BBC2 television series The Devil's Crown and the 1978 book of the same title, written by Richard Barber and published as a guide to the broadcast series, which starred Brian Cox as Henry and Jane Lapotaire as Eleanor.

Book of the Civilized Man is a poem believed to have been written in Henry's court and is the first "book of manners" or "courtesy book" in English history, representing the start of a new awakening to etiquette and decorum in English culture.

Coat of arms
Henry II's coat of arms were gules a lion rampant or (red background with a golden lion on hind legs).

[edit]
External links
The Henry Project (http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm)
Dame à la Licorne  (http://www.ianison.com/Y%20Is%20I%20Web/la%20Dame%20%E0%20la%20Licorne%20Tapestries.html) tapestries - secret exchanges between Henry and Eleanor through the medium of the tapestry designs from the famous Dame à la Licorne series
Medieval Sourcebook: Angevin England (http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1n.html#Angevin%20England)

King of England
1154 - 1189
Preceded by:
Stephen
Succeeded by:
Richard

Duke of Normandy
1150 - 1189
Preceded by:
Geoffrey V
Succeeded by:
Richard

Count of Anjou
with Henry the Young King
1151 - 1189
Preceded by:
Geoffrey V
Succeeded by:
Richard

Count of Maine
with Henry the Young King
1151 - 1189
Preceded by:
Geoffrey V
Succeeded by:
Richard

Duke of Aquitaine
with Eleanor 1152 - 1189
Preceded by:
King Louis VII and Eleanor
Succeeded by:
Richard

Count of Poitiers
with Eleanor 1152 - 1189
Preceded by King Louis VII and Eleanor
Succeeded by:
William
1102 - 1167 Empress Maud 65 65 Empress Maud (1102 - September 10, 1167) is the title by which Matilda, daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland (herself daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and St. Margaret of Scotland), is known, in order to differentiate her from the many other Matildas of the period. Matilda is the Latin form of the name "Maud" (or "Maude").

When she was seven-years-old, Maud was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, and was sent to Germany in 1111 to begin her training as his consort. Maud and Henry were married at Worms on January 7, 1114 in a splendid ceremony. In March 1116 Maud and Henry visited Rome and Tuscany, and she acted as Regent in his absence. The Imperial couple had no surviving offspring; Hermann of Tournai states that Maud bore a child that lived only a short while. When Henry died in 1125, he left Maud a childless widow of twenty-three. Her brother William Adelin had perished several years before in the wreck of the White Ship, leaving Maud the only legitimate heir to the English throne.

Maud returned to England, where her father named her his heir, and arranged another marriage for her. In 1127, she was married again, at Le Mans in Anjou, to Geoffrey of Anjou, who was eleven years her junior. He was nicknamed "Plantagenet" from the broom flower (planta genista) which he took as his emblem, hence the name of the line of English kings descended from him. The marriage was not a happy one, and Maud separated from him and returned to her father. She returned to Geoffrey in 1131, and they were reconciled. They produced three sons, the eldest of whom, Henry, was born on March 5, 1133. The birth of her second son, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes, in 1134 was difficult and Maud nearly died in childbed. Her father King Henry came to visit and took "great delight" in his grandsons. King Henry and Geoffrey quarreled, and so when her father died on December 1, 1135 in Normandy, Maud was with Geoffrey in Anjou.

On the death of her father in 1135, Maud expected to succeed to the throne of England, but her cousin, Stephen of Blois usurped the throne, breaking an oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Maud could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife was another Matilda: Matilda, countess of Boulogne. During the war, Maud's most loyal and capable supporter was her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester.

Maud's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen, who was made a prisoner and effectively deposed. Although she now controlled the kingdom, Maud never styled herself queen but took the title "Lady of the English". Her advantage lasted only a few months. By November, Stephen was free, and a year later, the tables were turned when Maud was besieged at Oxford but escaped, supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disgusing herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1147, Maud was finally forced to return to France, following the death of Robert of Gloucester.

All hope was not lost. Maud's son, Henry (later, Henry II of England), was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford.

She retired to Rouen, in Normandy, during her last years, where she maintained her own court. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William, were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Maud's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favorite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Thomas Becket, but was unsuccessful.

Despite her tenure as "Lady of the English", Maud was never loved by the people of her native land, who found her too foreign and haughty. She spoke three languages: French, German, and Latin. Even though she gave up hope of being crowned Queen in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Maud died at Rouen, and was buried in the cathedral there; her epitaph reads: "Here lies the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry."

Historical fiction
The civil war between supporters of Stephen and the supporters of Maud is the background for the popular "Brother Cadfael" books by Ellis Peters, and the films made from them starring Sir Derek Jacobi as that rare Benedictine.

The novel When Christ and His Saints Slept by Sharon Penman tells the story of the civil war.

It is also an important part in the storyline of Ken Follett's most popular novel Pillars of the Earth.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_Maud"
1122 - 1204 Eleanor of Aquitaine - Queen of France and England 82 82 Eleanor of Aquitaine (Bordeaux, France, "c"1122 - March 31, 1204 in Fontevrault, Anjou) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the Middle Ages. She was Queen of both France and England in her life.

Biography
The eldest of three children, her father was William X, Duke of Aquitaine, and her mother was Aenor de Châtellerault, the daughter of Aimeric I, Vicomte of Chatellerault and a woman named Dangereuse. William and Aenor's marriage had been arranged by his father and her mother, as Dangereuse was the long-time mistress of William IX of Aquitaine, the Troubador. Eleanor was named after her mother and called Aliénor, which means other Aenor in the langue d'oc, but it became Eléanor in the northern langue d'oil and in English.

She was raised in one of Europe's most cultured courts, the birthplace of courtly love. She was highly educated for a woman of the time, and knew how to read, how to speak Latin, was well versed in music and literature, and enjoyed riding, hawking, and hunting. She became heiress to Aquitaine, the largest and richest of the provinces that would become modern France, when her brother, William Aigret, died as a baby.

Duke William X died on Good Friday in 1137 while on a pilgrimage to Spain. At about 15 years old, Eleanor was Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right and officially the most eligible heiress in Europe. These were the days when kidnapping an heiress was seen as a viable option for attaining a title, so William wrote up a will on the very day he died instructing that his daughter marry Louis VII of France, the heir to the French throne. The marriage, on July 22, 1137, brought to France the area from the river Loire to the Pyrenees: most of what is today the southwest of France. However, there was a catch: the land would remain independent of France, and Eleanor's eldest son would be both King of France and Duke of Aquitaine. Thus, her holdings would not be merged with France until the next generation. She also gave him a wedding present that is still in existence, a rock crystal vase that is on display at the Louvre. Within a month of their marriage, Louis VI had died, and Eleanor became Queen of France.

Something of a free spirit, Eleanor was not much liked by the staid northerners (particularly, according to contemporary sources, her mother-in-law), who thought her flighty and a bad influence. Her conduct was repeatedly criticized by Church elders (particularly Bernard of Clairvaux and Abbot Suger) as indecorous. The King himself, on the other hand, had been madly in love with his beautiful and worldly wife and granted her every whim. Eleanor supported her sister Petronilla of Aquitaine when she illegally married Raoul of Vermandois; the incident started a war and caused conflict between Eleanor and Louis. She insisted on taking part in the Crusades as the feudal leader of the soldiers from her duchy. The story that she and her ladies dressed as Amazons is disputed by serious historians. However, her testimonial launch of the Second Crusade from Vézelay, the rumored location of Mary Magdalene's burial, dramatically emphasized the role of women in the campaign, with her, the Queen of France, as their leader.

The crusade itself was something of a disaster, both from a military viewpoint and in terms of the personal relationship of the royal couple. From a military standpoint, Louis was a weak and ineffectual military leader with no concept of maintaining troop discipline or morale, or of making informed and logical tactical decisions. The French army was betrayed by Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor, who feared that their militaristic aims would jeopardize the tenuous safety of his empire. A particularly poor decision was to camp one night in a lush valley surrounded by tall peaks in hostile territory. Predictably, the Turks attacked and slaughtered as many as 7000 Crusaders. As this decision was made by Eleanor's servant, it was generally believed that it was really her directive. This did nothing for her popularity in Christendom.

Even before the crusade, Eleanor and Louis were becoming estranged, as vigor and piety clashed. Her Aquitiane family had won Antioch in the First Crusade, and it was ruled by her flamboyant uncle, Raymond of Antioch (rumored to be her lover). Clearly, she supported his desire to re-capture the nearby County of Edessa, the cause of the crusade. Louis was directed by the Church to visit Jerusalem instead. When Eleanor declared her intention to stand with Raymond and the Aquitaine forces, Louis had her brought out by force. Louis's long march to Jerusalem and back north debilitated his army, but Eleanor's imprisonment disheartened her Aquitaine knights, and the divided Crusade armies could not overcome the Muslim forces. For reasons unknown, likely the Germans' insistence on conquest, the crusade leaders targeted Damascus, an ally until the attack. Failing in this attempt, they retired to Jerusalem, and then home.

Perhaps some good came of this venture: while in the eastern Mediterranean, Eleanor learned about maritime conventions developing there that were the beginnings of what would become the field of admiralty law. She later introduced those conventions in her own lands, on the island of Oleron in 1160, and then into England. She was also instrumental in developing trade agreements with Constantinople and ports of trade in the Holy Lands.

When they passed through Rome on the way to Paris, Pope Eugene III tried to reconcile Eleanor and Louis. Eleanor conceived their second daughter, Alix of France (their first was Marie de Champagne), but there was no saving the marriage. In 1152, it was annulled on the grounds of consanguinity. Her estates reverted to her and were no longer part of the French royal properties.

On May 18, 1152, six weeks after her annullment, Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Anjou, by whom she was pregnant with their son, William. She was about 6 years older than he, and related to him in the same degree as she had been to Louis. One of Eleanor's rumored lovers was Henry's own father, Geoffrey of Anjou, who, not surprisingly, advised him not to get involved with her. Over the next 13 years, she bore Henry four more sons and three daughters: Henry, Richard, Geoffrey, John, Matilda, Eleanor, and Joanna.

Despite her reputation (which all the historical evidence shows was probably deserved), Eleanor was incensed by Henry's philandering; their son, William, and Henry's son, Geoffrey, were born months apart.

Some time between 1168 and 1170, she instigated a separation, deciding to establish a new court in her own territory of Poitou. In Poitier, she reached the height of her powers creating the Court of Love. A small fragment of her codes and practices was written by Andreas Capellanus.

Henry concentrated on controlling his increasingly large empire, badgering Eleanor's subjects in attempts to control her patrimony of Aquitaine and her great court at Poitiers. Straining all civil bounds, Henry had Archbishop Thomas Becket murdered at the altar of the church in 1170. This aroused not only Eleanor's horror and contempt, but most of Europe's.

In 1173, aggrieved at his lack of power and egged on by his father's enemies, the younger Henry launched the Revolt of 1173-1174, joined by Richard and Geoffrey, and supported by several powerful English barons, as well as Louis VII and William I of Scotland. When Eleanor tried to join them, she was intercepted. Henry, who put down the rebellion, imprisoned her for the next 15 years, much of the time in various locations in England. About four miles from Shrewsbury and close by Haughmond Abbey is "Queen Eleanor's Bower," the remains of a triangular castle which is believed to have been one of her prisons.

Henry lost his great love, Rosamund Clifford, in 1176. He had met her in 1166 and begun the liaison in 1173, supposedly contemplating divorce from Eleanor. When Rosamund died, rumours flew that Eleanor poisoned her, but there is no evidence to support this.

In 1183, Henry the Young tried again. In debt and refused control of Normandy, he tried to ambush his father at Limoges. He was joined by troops sent by Geoffrey and Philip II of France. Henry's troops besieged the town, forcing his son to flee. Henry the Young wandered aimlessly through Aquitaine until he caught dysentery and died. The rebellion petered out.

Upon Henry's death in 1189, Eleanor helped her son Richard I to the throne, and he released her from prison. She ruled England as regent while Richard went off on the Third Crusade. She personally negotatied his ransom by going to Germany. She survived him and lived long enough to see her youngest son John on the throne.

Eleanor died in 1204 and was entombed in Fontevraud Abbey near her husband Henry and son Richard. Her tomb effigy shows her reading a Bible. She was the patroness of such literary figures as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-More, and Chrétien de Troyes.

In historical fiction
Eleanor and Henry are the main characters in the play The Lion in Winter, by James Goldman, which was made into a film starring Peter O'Toole and Katharine Hepburn, and remade for televison in 2003 with Patrick Stewart and Glenn Close.

The depiction of her in the film Becket is totally inaccurate.

She appears briefly in the BBC production Ivanhoe portrayed by Sian Phillips. She is also a major character in Thomas B. Costain's Below the Salt, and the subject of E. L. Konigsburg's children's book A Proud Taste for Scarlet and Miniver. Her later years are chronicled briefly in "Here be Dragons" by Sharon Kay Penman. The novel The Book of Eleanor by Pamela Kaufman tells the story of Eleanor's life from her own point of view.

Biographies
Queen Eleanor: Independent Spirit of the Medieval World, Polly Schover Brooks (©1983) (for young readers)
Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Biography, Marion Meade (©1977)
Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings, Amy Kelly (©1950)
Eleanor of Aquitaine: The Mother Queen, Desmond Seward (©1978)
Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, Alison Weir (©1999)
Women of the Twelfth Century, Volume 1 : Eleanor of Aquitaine and Six Others, Georges Duby
1157 - 1199 King Richard The Lionheart 42 42 Richard I (September 8, 1157 - April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. He was often referred to as Richard the Lionheart, Coeur de Lion. He was considered a hero in his day and has often been portrayed as one in works of literature.

Early life
The third of King Henry II's legitimate sons, Richard was never expected to accede to the throne. He was, however, the favourite son of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Richard was a younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. He was a younger brother of William, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King and Matilda of England. He was also an older brother of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of Aquitaine , Joan Plantagenet and John of England.

Although born in Oxford, England, he soon came to know France as his home. When his parents effectively separated, he remained in Eleanor's care, and was invested with her duchy of Aquitaine in 1168, and of Poitiers in 1172. This was his consolation prize for the fact that his eldest surviving brother, Henry the Young King, was simultaneously crowned as his father's successor. Richard and his other brother, Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany, thus learned how to defend their property while still teenagers. As well as being an educated man, able to compose poetry in French and Provençal, Richard was also a magnificent physical specimen; blonde, blue-eyed, his height is estimated at six feet four inches (1.93 m) tall. He gloried in military activity. From an early age he appeared to have significant political and military abilities, became noted for his chivalry and courage, and soon was able to control the unruly nobles of his territory. As with all the true-born sons of Henry II, Richard had limited respect for his father and lacked foresight and a sense of responsibility.

In 1170, his elder brother Henry the Young King was crowned king of England as Henry III. Historians know him as Henry "the Young King" so as not to confuse him with the later king of this name who was his nephew.

In 1173, Richard joined his brothers, Henry and Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany, in a revolt against their father. They were planning to dethrone their father and leave the Young King as the only king of England. Henry II invaded Aquitaine twice. At the age of seventeen, Richard was the last of the brothers to hold out against Henry; though, in the end, he refused to fight him face to face and humbly begged his pardon. In 1174, after the end of the failed revolt, Richard gave a new oath of subservience to his father.

After his failure Richard concentrated on putting down internal revolts by the dissatisfied nobles of Aquitaine, especially the territory of Gascony. The increasing cruelty of his reign led to a major revolt of Gascony in 1183. Richard had a terrible reputation, including reports of various rapes and murders. The rebels hoped to dethrone Richard and asked his brothers Henry and Geoffrey to help them succeed. Their father feared that the war between his three sons could lead to the destruction of his kingdom. He led the part of his army that served in his French territories in support of Richard. The Young King's death on June 11, 1183, ended the revolt, and Richard remained on his throne.

Young Henry's death left Richard as the eldest surviving son and the natural heir when the old King died. However, there was some uncertainty over King Henry's intentions. When Geoffrey also died, Richard was the only realistic possibility, his youngest brother, John, being too weak and inexperienced to be considered as an alternative. From the Young King's death Richard was considered -- though not officially proclaimed -- heir to the joint thrones of England, Normandy and Anjou. In 1188 Henry II planned to concede Aquitaine to his youngest son John Lackland, later King John of England. In opposition to his father's plans, Richard allied himself with King Philip II of France, the son of Eleanor's ex-husband Louis VII by his third wife, Adele of Champagne. In exchange for Philip's help against his father, Richard promised to concede his rights to both Normandy and Anjou to Philip. Richard gave an oath of subservience to Philip in November of the same year. In 1189 Richard attempted to take the throne of England for himself by joining Philip's expedition against his father. They were victorious. Henry, with John's consent, agreed to name Richard his heir. On July 6, 1189 Henry II died in Chinon, and Richard I succeeded him as King of England, Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou. He was officially crowned duke on July 20 and king in Westminster on September 3, 1189.

Reign
Richard had forbidden any Jews to make an appearance at his coronation, but some Jewish leaders showed up anyway to present gifts for the new king. According to Ralph of Diceto, Richard's courtiers stripped and flogged the Jews, then flung them out of court. The people of London joined in to persecute the Jews, and a massacre began. Many Jews were beaten to death, robbed, and burnt alive. At least one was forcibly baptised. Some sought sanctuary in the Tower of London, and others managed to escape half-dead. Later, when Richard wrote of this incident, he called the massacre a "holocaustum".

Richard has been criticised for doing little for England, siphoning the kingdom's resources by appointing Jewish moneylenders to support his journeys away on Crusade in the Holy Land, indeed, he spent only six months of his ten year reign in England, claiming it was "cold and always raining." During the period when he was raising funds for his Crusade, Richard was heard to declare, "If I could have found a buyer I would have sold London itself."
Richard had one major reason for discontent with his father. Henry had appropriated Princess Alys (not the same Alix as Richard's half-sister), the daughter of the French king and Richard's betrothed, as his mistress. This made a marriage between Richard and Alys technically impossible - at least in the eyes of the church, but Henry, not wishing to cause a diplomatic incident, prevaricated and did not confess to his misdeed. As for Richard, he was discouraged from renouncing Alys because she was Philip's sister.

Leaving the country in the hands of various officials he designated (including his mother, at times), Richard spent only a small fraction of his reign in England, being far more concerned with his possessions in what is now France and his battles in Palestine. He had grown up on the Continent, and had never seen any need to learn the English language. Soon after his accession to the throne, he decided to join the Third Crusade, inspired by the loss of Jerusalem to the "infidels" under the command of Saladin. Afraid that, during his absence, the French might usurp his territories, Richard tried to persuade Philip to join the Crusade as well. Philip agreed and both gave their crusader oaths on the same date.

Richard did not concern himself with the future of England. He wanted to engage in an adventure that would cause the troubadours to immortalise his name, as well as guaranteeing him a place in heaven. The evidence suggests that he had deep spiritual needs, and he swore an oath to renounce his past wickedness in order to show himself worthy to take the cross. He started to raise a new English crusader army, though most of his warriors were Normans, and supplied it with weapons. He spent most of his father's treasury (filled with money raised by the Saladin tithe), raised taxes, and even agreed to free King William I of Scotland from his oath of subservience to Richard in exchange for 10,000 marks. To raise even more money he sold official positions, rights, and lands to those interested in them. He finally succeeded in raising a huge army and navy. After repositioning the part of his army he left behind so that it would guard his French possessions, Richard finally started his expedition to the Holy Land in 1190. Richard appointed as regents Hugh, Bishop of Durham, and William de Mandeville, who soon died and was replaced by Richard's chancellor William Longchamp. Richard's brother John was not satisfied by this decision and started scheming against William.

The struggle for Sicily
In September 1190 both Richard and Philip arrived in Sicily. In 1189 King William II of Sicily had died. His heir was his aunt Constance, later Queen Constance of Sicily, who was married to Emperor Henry VI. But immediately after William's death, William's cousin, Tancred, rebelled, seized control of the island and was crowned early in 1190 as King Tancred I of Sicily. He was favored by the people and the pope but had problems with the island's nobles. Richard's arrival caused even more problems. Tancred had imprisoned William's widow, Queen Joan, who was Richard's sister, and did not give her the money she had inherited according to William's will. Richard demanded that his sister be released and given her inheritance. Meanwhile the presence of two foreign armies caused unrest among the people. In October, the people of Messina revolted, demanding that the foreigners leave the island. Richard attacked Messina and captured it on October 4, 1190. After looting and burning the city Richard established his base in it. He remained there until March 1191 when Tancred finally agreed to sign a treaty. The treaty was signed during the same month by Richard, Philip and Tancred. According to the treaty's main terms:

Joan was to be released, receiving her inheritance along with the dowry her father had given to the deceased William.
Richard and Philip recognized Tancred as legal King of Sicily and vowed to keep the peace between all three of their kingdoms.
Richard officially proclaimed his nephew, the son of Geoffrey, Arthur of Brittany, as his heir, and Tancred promised to later marry one of his daughters to Arthur when he came of age (Arthur was only four years old at the time).
After signing the treaty Richard and Philip left Sicily. The treaty undermined England's relationships with the Holy Roman Empire and caused the revolt of Richard's brother John, who hoped to be proclaimed heir instead of their nephew. Although his revolt failed, John continued to scheme against his brother after this point.

Richard on the Third Crusade
During April Richard stopped on the Byzantine island of Rhodes to avoid the stormy weather. He left in May but a new storm drove Richard's fleet to Cyprus. On May 6, 1191, Richard's fleet arrived in the port of Lemesos (now Limassol). Richard captured the city. When the island's despot Isaac Dukas Comnenus arrived to stop the Crusaders he discovered he was too late, and retired to Kolossi. Richard called Isaac to negotiations but Isaac broke his oath of hospitality and started demanding Richard's departure. Richard ordered his cavalry to follow him in a battle against Isaac's army in Tremetusia. The few Roman Catholics of the island joined Richard's army and so did the island's nobles who were dissatisfied with Isaac's seven years of tyrannical rule. Though Isaac and his men fought bravely, Richard's army was bigger and better equipped, assuring his victory. Isaac continued to resist from the castles of Pentadactylos but after the siege of his castle of Kantaras he finally surrendered. Richard became the new ruler of Cyprus.

Richard looted the island and massacred those trying to resist him. Meanwhile, Richard was finally able to marry the woman to whom he was engaged, who had been brought by his mother to join him on the crusade route. His marriage to Princess Berengaria of Navarre, first-born daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre, was held in Limassol on May 12, 1191. It was attended by his sister Joan, whom Richard had brought from Sicily. There were no children from the marriage; opinions vary as to whether it was ever a love match. The unfortunate Berengaria had almost as much difficulty in making the journey home as her husband did, and did not see England until after his death.

Richard and most of his army left Cyprus for the Holy Land early in June. In his absence Cyprus would be governed by Richard Kamvill. King Richard arrived at Acre in June 1191, in time to relieve the siege of the city by Saladin. Deserted by Philip and having fallen out with Duke Leopold V of Austria, he suddenly found himself without allies.

Richard's tactics ensured success at the siege of Acre and on the subsequent march south, Saladin's men being unable to harass the Crusader army into an impulsive action which might not have gone their way. However, the desertion of the French king had been a major blow, from which they could not hope to recover. Realising that he had no hope of holding Jerusalem even if he took it, Richard sadly ordered a retreat. Despite being only a few miles from the city, he refused, thereafter, to set eyes on it, since God had ordained that he should not be the one to conquer it. He had finally realised that his return home could be postponed no longer, since both Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence to make themselves more powerful.

Having planned to leave Conrad of Montferrat as "King" of Jerusalem and Cyprus in the hands of his own protégé, Guy of Lusignan, Richard was dealt another blow when Conrad was assassinated before he could be crowned. His replacement was Richard's own nephew, Henry I of Champagne.

Captivity and return
On his return to Europe, shortly before Christmas 1192, Richard was captured only a few miles from the Moravian border by Leopold V of Austria. Richard and his retainers had been traveling disguised as pilgrims, complete with flowing beards and tattered clothes. Richard himself was dressed like a kitchen hand, but was identified because he was wearing a magnificent and costly ring no menial worker could afford. The Duke handed him over as a prisoner to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor after being held captive at Dürnstein. Although the circumstances of his captivity were not severe, he was frustrated by his inability to travel freely. Richard once proudly declared, "I am born of a rank which recognizes no superior but God" to the emperor. His mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, worked tirelessly to raise the exorbitant ransom of 100,000 marks demanded by the German emperor; both clergy and laymen were taxed for a quarter of the value of their property, the gold and silver treasures of the churches were confiscated, and money was raised from the scutage and the carucage taxes. The emperor demanded that 70,000 marks be delivered to him before he would release the king, the same amount that had been raised by the Saladin tithe only a few years earlier. The money was transferred to Germany by the emperor's ambassadors, but "at the king's peril" (had it been lost along the way, Richard would have been held responsible), and finally, on February 4, 1194 Richard was released. King Philip of France sent a message to John: "Look to yourself; the devil is loose."

Later Years & Death
During his absence, John had come close to seizing the throne; Richard forgave him, and even named him as his heir in place of Arthur, who was growing into an unpleasant youth. Instead of turning against John, Richard came into conflict with his former ally and friend, King Philip. When Philip attacked Richard's fortress, Chateau-Gaillard, he boasted that "if its walls were iron, yet would I take it", to which Richard replied, "If these walls were butter, yet would I hold them!"

After his many famous battles, it was a minor skirmish with the rebellious castle of Châlus-Charbrol near Limousin, France, on 26 March 1199 that would take Richard's life. Richard had laid siege to the castle in pursuit of a claim to treasure-trove. Pierre Basile was one of only two knights defending Châlus. Richard, who had removed some of his chainmail, was wounded in the shoulder by a crossbow bolt launched from a tower by Basile. Gangrene set in and Richard asked to see his killer. He ordered that Basile be set free and awarded a sum of money. However as soon as Richard died, with his 77-year-old mother Eleanor at his side, on 6 April 1199, Basile was flayed alive and then hanged.

Richard's bowels were buried at the foot of the tower from which the shot was loosed while the rest of his remains were buried next to his father at Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon and Saumur, France.

Legacy
There is no doubt that Richard had many admirable qualities, as well as many bad ones. He was a military mastermind, and politically astute in many ways; yet incredibly foolish in others, and unwilling to give way to public opinion. He was capable of great humility as well as great arrogance. He loved his family, but behaved ruthlessly to his enemies. He was revered by his most worthy rival, Saladin, and respected by the Emperor Henry, but hated by many who had been his friends, especially King Philip. He was often careless of his own safety: the wound which killed him need not have been inflicted at all if he had been properly armoured. Almost the same thing had happened, ten years earlier when, while feuding with his father, he had encountered William Marshal while unarmed and had to beg for his life. Richard's existence had been one whole series of contradictions. Although he had neglected his wife, Berengaria, he had to be commanded by priests to be faithful to her. She was distraught at the news of his death. He produced no heirs.

Richard was succeeded by his brother John as king of England. However, his French territories initially rejected John as a successor, preferring his nephew Arthur of Brittany, the son of their late brother Geoffrey, whose claim was technically better than John's.

Folklore
Over the years the figures of Robin Hood and Richard I have become closely linked. However, in the earliest Robin Hood ballads the only king mentioned is "Edward our comely king", presumably Edward I, II, or III. It was not until much later that a connection came to be made between the two men. The typical usage of the link is that the major political goal of Robin's war is to restore Richard to the throne after Prince John usurped it.



1166 - 1216 King John 50 50 John (French: Jean) (December 24, 1166 - October 18/19, 1216) reigned as King of England from April 6, 1199, until his death. He succeeded to the throne as the younger brother of King Richard I (known as "Richard the Lionheart"). John acquired the nicknames of "Lackland" (in French, sans terre) and "Soft-sword".

John's reign has been traditionally characterized as one of the most disastrous in English history: it began with defeats—he lost Normandy to Philippe Auguste of France in his first five years on the throne—and ended with England torn by civil war and himself on the verge of being forced out of power. In 1213, he made England a papal fief to resolve a conflict with the Church, and his rebellious barons forced him to sign Magna Carta in 1215, the act for which he is best remembered. Some have argued, however, that John ruled no better or worse than his immediate predecessor or his successor.

Early years
Born at Oxford, John was the fifth son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

John was a younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. He was a younger brother of William, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King, Matilda of England, Richard I of England, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of Aquitaine and Joan Plantagenet.

John was always his father's favourite son, though as the youngest, he could expect no inheritance (hence his nickname, "Lackland"). He was almost certainly born in 1166 instead of 1167, as is sometimes claimed. King Henry and Queen Eleanor were not together nine months prior to December 1167, but they were together in March 1166. Also, John was born at Oxford on or near Christmas, but Eleanor and Henry spent Christmas 1167 in Normandy. The canon of Laon, writing a century later, states John was named after Saint John the Baptist, on whose feast day (December 27) he was born. Ralph of Diceto also states that John was born in 1166, and that Queen Eleanor named him.

His family life was tumultuous, with his older brothers all involved in rebellions against King Henry. His mother, Queen Eleanor was imprisoned in 1173, when John was a small boy. Gerald of Wales relates that King Henry had a curious painting in a chamber of Winchester Castle, depicting an eagle being attacked by three of it's chicks, while a fourth chick crouched, waiting for it's chance to strike. When asked the meaning of this picture, King Henry said:

"The four young ones of the eagle are my four sons, who will not cease persecuting me even unto death. And the youngest, whom I now embrace with such tender affection, will someday afflict me more grievously and perilously than all the others."
In 1189 John was married to Avisa, daughter and heiress of the Earl of Gloucester. (She is given several alternative names by history, including Isabella, Hawise, Joan, and Eleanor.) They had no children, and John had their marriage annulled on the grounds of consanguinity, some time before or shortly after his accession to the throne, which took place on April 6, 1199, and she was never acknowledged as queen. (She then married Geoffrey de Mandeville as her second husband and Hubert de Burgh as her third).

Before his accession, John had already acquired a reputation for treachery, having conspired sometimes with and sometimes against his elder brothers, Henry, Geoffrey and Richard. In 1184, John and Richard both claimed that they were the rightful heir to the Aquitaine, one of many unfriendly encounters between the two. In 1185 though, John became the ruler of Ireland, whose people grew to despise him, causing John to leave after only eight months (see: John's first expedition to Ireland).

During Richard's absence on the Third Crusade from 1190 to 1194, John attempted to overthrow his designated regent, despite having been forbidden by his brother to leave France. This was one reason the older legend of Hereward the Wake was updated to King Richard's reign, with "Prince John" as the ultimate villain and with the hero now called "Robin Hood". However, on his return to England in 1194, Richard forgave John and named him as his heir.

Reign
On Richard's death, John did not gain immediate universal recognition as king. Some regarded his young nephew, Arthur of Brittany, the posthumous son of John's brother Geoffrey, as the rightful heir. Arthur vied with his uncle John for the throne, and enjoyed the support of King Philip II of France. Arthur attempted to kidnap his own grandmother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, at Mirebeau, but was defeated and captured by John's forces. According to the Margram Annals, on 3 April 1203: :"After King John had captured Arthur and kept him alive in prison for some time in the castle of Rouen... when [John] was drunk and possessed by the devil he slew [Arthur] with his own hand and tying a heavy stone to the body cast it into the Seine."

Besides Arthur, John also captured his niece Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany. Eleanor remained a prisoner the rest of her life (which ended in 1241); through deeds such as these, John acquired a reputation for ruthlessness.

In the meantime, John had remarried, on August 24, 1200, Isabelle of Angoulême, who was twenty years his junior. She was the daughter of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angouleme. John had kidnapped her from her fiancée, Hugh IX of Lusignan. Isabelle eventually produced five children, including two sons (Henry and Richard), and three daughters (Joan, Isabella and Eleanor).

In 1205 John married off his illegitimate daughter, Joan, to the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great, building an alliance in the hope of keeping peace within England and Wales so that he could recover his French lands. The French king had declared most of these forfeit in 1204, leaving John only Gascony in the southwest.

John is given a great talent for lechery by the chroniclers of his age, and even allowing some embellishment, he did have many illegitimate children. Matthew Paris accuses him of being envious of many of his barons and kinsfolk, and seducing their more attractive daughters and sisters. Roger of Wendover describes an incident that occurred when John became enamoured with Margaret, the wife of Eustace de Vesci and an illegitimate daughter of King William I of Scotland. Her husband substituted a prostitute in her place when the king came to Margaret's bed in the dark of night; the next morning when John boasted to Vesci of how good his wife was in bed, Vesci confessed and fled.

Besides Joan, the wife of Llywelyn Fawr, his bastard daughter by a woman named Clemence, John had a son named Richard Fitz Roy by his first cousin, a daughter of his uncle Hamelin de Warenne. By another mistress, Hawise, John had Oliver FitzRoy, who accompanied the papal legate Pelayo to Damietta in 1218, and never returned. By an unknown mistress (or mistresses) John fathered: Geoffrey FitzRoy, who went on expedition to Poitou in 1205 and died there; John FitzRoy, a clerk in 1201; Henry FitzRoy, who died in 1245; Osbert Gifford, who was given lands in Oxfordshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Sussex and is last found alive in 1216; Eudes FitzRoy, who accompanied his half-brother Richard on Crusade and died in the Holy Land in 1241; Bartholomew FitzRoy, a member of the order of Friars Preachers; and Maud FitzRoy, Abbess of Barking, who died in 1252.

As far as the administration of his kingdom went, John functioned as an efficient ruler, but he won the disapproval of the English barons by taxing them in ways that were outside those traditionally allowed by feudal overlords. The tax known as scutage, a penalty for those who failed to supply military resources, became particularly unpopular.

When Hubert Walter, the Archbishop of Canterbury died on 13 July 1205, John became involved in a dispute with Pope Innocent III. The monks of Christ Church chapter in Canterbury claimed the sole right to elect Hubert's successor, but both the English bishops and the King had an interest in the choice of successor to this powerful office. When their dispute could not be settled, the monks secretly elected one of their members as Archbishop and later a second election imposed by John resulted in another candidate. When they both appeared at Rome, Innocent disavowed both elections and his candidate, Stephen Langton was elected over the objections of John's observers. This action by Innocent disregarded the king's rights in selection of his own vassals. John was supported in his position by the English barons and many of the English bishops and refused to accept Stephen Langton.

John expelled the Canterbury monks in July 1207 and the Pope ordered an interdict against the kingdom. John immediately retaliated by seizure of church property for failure to provide feudal service and the fight was on. The pious of England were theoretically left without the comforts of the church, but over a period they became used to it and the pope realising that too long a period without church services could lead to loss of faith, gave permission for some churches to hold mass behind closed doors in 1209 and in 1212 allowed last rites to the dying. It seems that the church in England quietly continued some services and while the interdict was a burden to many, it did not result in rebellion against John.

In November of 1209 John himself was excommunicated and in February 1213 Innocent threatened stronger measures unless John submitted. The papal terms for submission were accepted and in addition John offered to surrender the Kingdom of England to God and the Saints Peter and Paul for a feudal service of 1000 marks annually, 700 for England and 300 for Ireland. With this submission, John gained the valuable support of his papal overlord in his dispute with the English barons, some of whom rebelled against him after he was excommunicated.

Having successfully put down the Welsh Uprising of 1211 and settling his dispute with the papacy, John turned his attentions back to his overseas interests. The European wars culminated in defeat at the Battle of Bouvines, which forced the king to accept an unfavourable peace with France. This finally turned the barons against him, and he met their leaders at Runnymede, near London, on June 15, 1215, to sign the Great Charter called, in Latin, Magna Carta. Because he had signed under duress, however, John received approval from his overlord the Pope to break his word as soon as hostilities had ceased, provoking the First Barons' War.

Death
In 1216, John, retreating from an invasion by Prince Louis of France (whom the majority of the English barons had invited to replace John on the throne), crossed the marshy area known as The Wash in East Anglia and lost his most valuable treasures, including the Crown Jewels as a result of the unexpected incoming tide. This dealt him a terrible blow, which affected his health and state of mind, and he succumbed to dysentery, dying on October 18 or October 19, 1216, at Newark in Lincolnshire*. Numerous, if fictitious, accounts circulated soon after his death that he had been killed by poisoned ale or poisoned plums. He lies buried in Worcester Cathedral in the city of Worcester. His nine-year-old son succeeded him and became King Henry III of England, and although Louis continued to claim the English throne, the barons switched their allegiance to the new king, forcing Louis to give up his claim and sign the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217.

*Footnote: Newark now lies within the County of Nottinghamshire, close to its long boundary with Lincolnshire.

Alleged illiteracy
For a long time, school children have learned that King John had to approve Magna Carta by attaching his seal to it because he could not sign it, lacking the ability to read or write. This textbook inaccuracy resembled that of textbooks which claimed that Christopher Columbus wanted to prove the earth was round. Whether the original authors of these errors knew better and oversimplified because they wrote for children, or whether they had been misinformed themselves, as a result generations of adults remembered mainly two things about "wicked King John", both of them wrong. (The other "fact" was that, if Robin Hood had not stepped in, Prince John would have embezzled the money raised to ransom King Richard. The fact is that Prince John did embezzle the ransom money, by creating forged seals, and Robin Hood may or may not have had any historical reality.)

In fact, King John did sign the draft of the Charter that the negotiating parties hammered out in the tent on Charter Island at Runnymede on 15–18 June 1215, but it took the clerks and scribes working in the royal offices some time after everyone went home to prepare the final copies, which they then sealed and delivered to the appropriate officials. In those days, legal documents were sealed to make them official, not signed. (Even today, many legal documents are not considered effective without the seal of a notary public or corporate official, and printed legal forms such as deeds say "L.S." next to the signature lines. That stands for the Latin locus signilli ("place of the seal"), signifying that the signer has used a signature as a substitute for a seal.) When William the Conqueror (and his wife) signed the Accord of Winchester (Image) in 1072, for example, they and all the bishops signed with crosses, as illiterate people would later do, but they did so in accordance with current legal practice, not because the bishops could not write their own names.

Henry II had at first intended that his son Prince John receive an education to go into the Church, which would have meant Henry did not have to give him any land, but in 1171 Henry began negotiations to betroth John to the daughter of Count Humbert III of Savoy (who had no son yet and so wanted a son-in-law), and after that, talk of making John a churchman ceased. John's parents had both received a good education—Henry II spoke some half dozen languages, and Eleanor of Aquitaine had attended lectures at what would soon become the University of Paris—in addition to what they had learned of law and government, religion, and literature. John himself had received one of the best educations of any king of England. Some of the books the records show he read included: De Sacramentis Christianae Fidei by Hugh of St. Victor, Sentences by Peter Lombard, The Treatise of Origen, and a history of England—potentially Wace's Roman de Brut, based on Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.

Notes
According to records of payment made to King John's bath attendant, William Aquarius, the king bathed on average about once every three weeks, which cost a considerable sum of 5d to 6d each, suggesting an elaborate and ceremonial affair. Although this may seem barbaric by modern standards, it was civilised compared to monks who were expected to bathe three times a year, with the right not to bathe at all if they so chose. By contrast, King John dressed very well in coats made of fur from sable and ermine and other exotic furs such as polar bear.

John's first expedition to Ireland
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The 1185 expedition of the future King John of England to Ireland is one that has attracted quite a deal of historical interest and debate. Much of the debate has arisen due to the lack of government records available on this period, and the subsequent reliance on more opinion laden sources such as the Irish Annals and the writings of Gerald of Wales.

The subject of John going to Ireland first came into question under the reign of his father, Henry II specifically with the Council of Oxford in the year 1177. This council agreed to have John made King of Ireland. This would appear to have been a strategy of his father's to divide his Angevin possesions between his four sons. The pope approval was sought to have John crowned King of Ireland but disagreements with the Pope caused this to be delayed and instead John went as only Lord of Ireland.

In 1184 arrangements were made for John's departure with the sending of John Cumin and Philip of Worcester to prepare the ground for John's arrival. John arrived in Ireland in April 1185, landing at Waterford with around 300 Knights and numerous foot soldiers and archers.

Upon his arrival in Ireland, John and his retinue were greeted by numerous unnamed Gaelic Irish leaders. It is said that upon seeing these strange long bearded Kings, John and his retinue laughed and pulled them about by their beards! We are told by Gerald that the Irish then complained to their overlords - men such as Rory O'Connor - of how John was, "an ill-mannered child...from whom no good could be hoped". Aside from upsetting these rulers, John also at this time engaged in a vigorous program of extending land grants to trusted royal administrators such as Theobald Walter, William De Burgh, Gilbert Pipard and Bertram De Verdon as well as other minor land grants to lesser figures. These leading noblemen would go on to become the next generation of English colonials in Ireland and men like Walter would breed a new family generation - the Butler's - who would in time come to be an influential part of Ireland's history.

During his stay in Ireland, John largely followed the route of his father Henry II, landing in Waterford and ending up in Dublin. Along the way John's expedition has been attributed to setting up several castles, especially in Western Waterford and Southern Tipperary but also the setting up of basic administrative structures and basic law beginnings to which he was to expand upon later in his second expedition in 1210.

John left Ireland in December and returned to England. Scholarship has largely been agreed that this was most likely to do with the presence of Hugh De Lacy but it is also likely that John ran out of money. It has been suggested that his departure was a setback in much broader 'plan' to set up administrative structures in Ireland in order to control the unruly Barons via loyal, royalist forces such as Walter, De Burgh and De Verdon and that when De Lacy began to threaten his position, he escaped back to the safety of England. What is generally perceived, both contempoarily and in modern scholarship as a feckless attitude has given him a bad reputation and caused his first expedition to be viewed unfairly.

Upon his departure, his father Henry granted the office of justiciar to the Baron John de Courcy, who had massive influence in Ulster. In 1186 Hugh De Lacy was assassinated by an Irishman and plans were made to send John back to Ireland. However, the death of his brother, Geoffrey, in France cancelled these plans and John did not return to Ireland until his second expedition in 1210.

1081 - 1125 Henry V - King of Germany - Holy Roman Emperor 44 44 Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, (1081 - May 23, 1125) was the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. He forced the abdication in 1105 of his father, the emperor Henry IV and secured his own election as king, assuming the imperial crown in 1111.

Despite initial Papal support for his accession, Henry continued the Investiture Controversy started by his father against the Pope's insistence on control all ecclesiastical appointments in Germany. Invading Italy twice (1110 and 1116) and setting up a rival antipope in opposition to the Pope in Rome, Henry eventually secured a compromise (the Concordat of Worms, 1122) under which the Pope would invest church appointees with their spiritual offices, the Emperor with their lay rights.

In 1114, Henry married the young Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, at Mainz. They had no children.

1113 - 1151 Geoffrey of Anjou 38 38 Geoffrey V (August 24, 1113 - September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy, called Le Bel ("The Fair") or "Geoffrey Plantagenet", was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the Plantagenet dynasty of English kings.

Geoffrey was the eldest son of Fulk, Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem. Geoffrey's mother was Eremburge of La Flèche, heiress of Maine. Geoffrey received his nickname for the sprig of broom (= genêt plant, in French) he wore in his hat as a badge. In 1127, at Le Mans, at the age of 15 he married Empress Maud, the daughter and heiress of King Henry I of England, by his first wife, Edith of Scotland and widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. The marriage was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, and their marriage was a stormy one, but she survived him.

The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king), leaving Geoffrey behind as count of Anjou. Chroniclers describe Geoffrey as handsome, red-headed, jovial, and a great warrior; however, Ralph of Diceto alleges that his charm concealed his cold and selfish character. When King Henry I died in 1135, Maud at once entered Normandy to claim her inheritance. The border districts submitted to her, but England chose her cousin Stephen of Blois for its king, and Normandy soon followed suit. The following year, Geoffrey gave Ambrieres, Gorron, and Chatilon-sur-Colmont to Juhel de Mayenne, on condition that he help obtain the inheritance of Geoffrey’s wife. In 1139 Maud landed in England with 140 knights, where she was beseiged at Arundel Castle by King Stephen. In the "Anarchy" which ensued, Stephen was captured at Lincoln in February, 1141, and imprisoned at Bristol. A legatine council of the English church held at Winchester in April 1141 declared Stephen deposed and proclaimed Maud "Lady of the English". Stephen was subsequently released from prison and had himself recrowned on the anniversary of his first coronation.

During 1142 and 1143, Geoffrey secured all of Normandy west and south of the Seine, and, on 14 January, 1444, he crossed the Seine and entered Rouen. He assumed the title of Duke of Normandy in the summer of 1144. In 1144, he founded an Augustine priory at Chateau-l’Ermitage in Anjou. Geoffrey held the duchy until 1149, when he and Maud conjointly ceded it to their son, Henry, which cession was formally ratified by King Louis VII of France the following year. Geoffrey also put down three baronial rebellions in Anjou, in 1129, 1135, and 1145-1151. The threat of rebellion slowed his progress in Normandy, and is one reason he could not intervene in England. In 1153, the Treaty of Westminster allowed Stephen should remain King of England for life and that Henry, the son of Geoffrey and Maud should succeed him. At Château-du-Loir, Geoffrey died suddenly on September 7, 1151, still a young man. He was buried at St. Julien's in Le Mans France. Geoffrey and Maud's children were:

Henry II of England (1133-1183)
Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (1134-1158)
William, Count of Poitou (1136-1164)
Geoffrey also had illegitimate children by an unknown mistress (or mistresses): Hamelin; Emme, who married Dafydd Ab Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales; and Mary, (1181-1216) who became a nun and Abbess of Shaftesbury and who may be the poetess Marie de France.

The first reference to Norman heraldry was in 1128, when Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law Geoffrey and granted him a badge of gold lions (or leopards) on a blue background. (A gold lion may already have been Henry’s own badge.) Henry II used two gold lions and two lions on a red background are still part of the arms of Normandy. Henry's son, Richard I, added a third lion to distinguish the arms of England.

1120 - 1180 Louis VII King of France 60 60 Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 - September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180.

A member of the Capetian Dynasty, Louis VII was born in 1120, the second son of Louis the Fat and Adélaide of Maurienne (c. 1100 - 1154). Construction began on Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris during his reign.

As a younger son, Louis had been raised to follow the ecclesiastical path. He unexpectedly became the heir to the throne of France after the accidental death of his older brother, Philip, in 1131. A well-learned and exceptionally devout man, Louis was better suited for life as a priest than that of a monarch.

In the same year he was crowned king of France, Louis VII was married on July 22, 1137 to Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122 - March 31, 1204), heiress of William X of Aquitaine. The pairing of the monkish Louis and the high-spirted Eleanor was doomed to failure; she once reportedly declared that she had thought to marry a king, only to find she'd married a monk. Their daughters were:

Marie of Champagne (1145 - March 11, 1198), married Henry I of Champagne
Alix of France (1151 - 1197/1198), married Theobald V of Blois
In the first part of Louis VII's reign he was vigorous and jealous of his prerogatives, but after his crusade his piety limited his ability to become an effective statesman. His accession was marked by no disturbances, save the uprisings of the burgesses of Orléans and of Poitiers, who wished to organize communes. But soon he came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II. The archbishopric of Bourges became vacant, and the king supported as candidate the chancellor Cadurc, against the pope's nominee Pierre de la Chatre, swearing upon relics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges. This brought the interdict upon the king's lands.

Louis became involved in a war with Theobald II of Champagne, by permitting Raoul I of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife, Theobald's niece, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, sister of the queen of France. Champagne also sided with the pope in the dispute over Bourges. The war lasted two years (1142-44) and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry. More than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church, died in the flames. Overcome with guilt, Louis declared on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade. Bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay (Easter 1146).

Meanwhile in 1144, Geoffrey the Handsome, count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy, threatening the royal domains. Louis VII by a clever manoeuvre threw his army on the Norman frontier and gained Gisors, one of the keys of Normandy.

In June 1147 Louis and his queen, Eleanor, set out from Metz, Lorraine, on the overland route to Syria. Just beyond Laodicea the French army was ambushed by Turks. The French were bombarded by arrows and heavy stones, the Turks swarmed down from the mountains and the massacre began. The historian Odo of Deuil reported:

"During the fighting the king [Louis] lost his small and famous royal guard, but he remained in good heart and nimbly and courageously scaled the side of the mountain by gripping the tree roots ... The enemy climbed after him, hoping to capture him, and the enemy in the distance continued to fire arrows at him. But God willed that his cuirass should protect him from the arrows, and to prevent himself from being captured he defended the crag with his bloody sword, cutting off many heads and hands."
Louis and his army finally reached the Holy Land in 1148. His queen Eleanor supported her uncle, Raymond of Antioch, and prevailed upon Louis to help Antioch against Aleppo. But Louis' interest lay in Jerusalem, and so he slipped out of Antioch in secret. He united with Conrad III of Germany and King Baldwin III of Jerusalem to lay seige to Damascus; this ended in disaster and the project was abandoned. Louis decided to leave the Holy Land, despite the protests of Eleanor, who still wanted to help her doomed uncle Raymond of Antioch. Louis and the French army returned to France in 1149.

The expedition came to a great cost to the royal treasury and military. It also precipitated a conflict with Eleanor, leading to the annulment of their marriage at the council of Beaugency (March 1152). The pretext of kinship was the basis for annulment. Its reasons had more to do with quarrels between Louis and Eleanor, her scandalous behavior during the Crusades, and the decreasing odds that their marriage would produce a male heir to the throne of France. Eleanor subsequently married Henry, Count of Anjou in the following May, which brought him the duchy of Aquitaine. Louis VII led an ineffective war against Henry for having married without the authorization of his suzerain; but in August 1154 gave up his rights over Aquitaine, and contented himself with an indemnity.

In 1154 Louis married Constance, daughter of Alfonso VII, king of Castile. She, too, failed to give him a son and heir, bearing two more daughters:

Marguerite of France(1158-1197), married (1) Henry the Young King; (2) King Bela III of Hungary
Alys, Countess of the Vexin (October 4, 1160), engaged to Richard I of England; she married William III Talvas, Count of Ponthieu
As part of a peace process with Henry II of England, Louis imprudently pledged his daughter, Marguerite, in the treaty of Gisors (1158) to Henry, Henry's eldest son, promising as a dowry the Norman Vexin and Gisors.

Constance died in childbirth on the 4th of October 1160, and five weeks later Louis VII married Adèle of Champagne. Henry II, to counterbalance the advantage this would give the king of France, had the marriage of their children celebrated at once. Louis VII understood the danger of the growing Angevin power, however, through indecision and lack of fiscal and military resources compared to Henry's, Louis failed to oppose Angevin hegemony effectively. One of the few military successes of Louis, in 1159, was his expedition in the south to aid Raymond V, Count of Toulouse who had been attacked by Henry II. At the same time the emperor Frederick I in the east was making good the imperial claims on Arles. When the schism broke out, Louis took the part of the pope Alexander III, the enemy of Frederick, and after two comical failures of Frederick to meet Louis VII at Saint Jean de Losne (on the 29th of August and the 22nd of September 1162), Louis definitely gave himself up to the cause of Alexander, who lived at Sens from 1163 to 1165. Alexander gave the king, in return for his loyal support, the golden rose.

Finally, in 1165 Adèle gave birth to them much longed-for son, along with a daughter a few years later. Louis and Adèle's children were:

Philip II Augustus (August 22, 1165-1223)
Agnes of France (1171-1240), who married (1) Alexius II Comnenus; (2) Andronicus I Comnenus; (3) Theodosius Branas
Louis VII received Thomas Becket and tried to reconcile him with King Henry II. Louis sided with Thomas Becket as a way to weaken Henry politically. He also supported Henry's rebellious sons, but the rivalry between Henry's sons and Louis' own indecisiveness contributed to the break up of the coalition (1173-1174). Finally in 1177 the pope intervened to bring the two kings to terms at Vitry.

His reign was a difficult and unfortunate one, from the point of view of royal territory and military power. Yet the royal authority made progress in the parts of France distant from the royal domains. More direct and more frequent connection was made with distant vassals, a result largely due to the alliance of the clergy with the crown. Louis thus reaped the reward for services rendered the church during the least successful portion of his reign. His greater accomplishments lie in the development of agriculture, population, commerce, the building of stone fortresses, as well as an intellectual renaissance. Considering the significant disparity of political leverage and financial resources between Louis and his Angevin rival, not to mention Henry's superior military skills, Louis should be credited with preserving the Capetian dynasty.

He was to be succeeded by his son by Adèle, Philip II Augustus and had him crowned at Reims in 1179. However, already stricken with paralysis, King Louis himself was not able to be present at the ceremony.

Louis VII died on September 18, 1180 at the Abbey at Saint-Pont, Allier and is interred in Saint Denis Basilica.

Elizabeth Macie Elizabeth Hungerford Keate Macie was a cousin of the 1st Duke of Northumberland's wife Elizabeth Seymour, and an heiress in her own right, to the property of the Hungerfords of Studley. She was also the widow of John Macie, of Weston, near Bath, Somerset; so the young James Smithson originally was called Jacques Louis Macie. Elizabeth later married John Marshe Dickinson, a troubled son of Marshe Dickinson who was Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1757 and Member of Parliament. During this marriage, she had another son, called Henry Louis Dickenson; but the 1st Duke of Northumberland, rather than Dickinson, is thought to have been the father of this second son also.
Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Smithson
1787 - 1794 Henry 7 7 D. 1736 Edward Prideaux Gwyn First son.
He died unmarried in 1736 - 2 years after his father died.

Followed his father as Member of Parliament for Wells.

***There is an engraving (reproduced here) of Forde Abbey from 1734 - during the time of Edmund Prideaux Gwyn.  It is in the collection at Forde Abbey and has been kindly made available for reproduction here by the Roper family, current owners of Forde Abbey.


Collection MISCELLANEOUS SOMERSET RECORDS

Repository Somerset Record Office
Level Item
RefNo DD\BR\bf/4 

Title - Copy will of Francis Gwyn of Ford Abbey (Devon) and Llansannor (Glamorgan).

Description - Bequeathing to his son Edward Prideaux Gwyn, his real estate in Somerset, Dorset, Devon and Glamorgan (no details), with his interest in 2 houses in Scotland Yard, Whitehall, London.
Letters of administration annexed, 1755, 1779.

Date 1731-1779

From website:  http://www.somerset.gov.uk/archives/dservea/
D. 1143 Godfrey II Count of Louvain Luitgarde of Sultzbach Daughter of Berenger I, Count of Sultzbach.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godfrey_of_Louvain"
1142 - 1190 Godfrey III Duke of Louvain and Brabant 48 48 Godfrey III, Count of Louvain and Duke of Barbant, 1142 - 1190. 1879 - 1956 Jane Ann Dent 77 77 1877 - 1945 William Henry Norris 68 68 Born Birmingham.
In World War I served in the in the King’s Royal Rifle Corps.
In the photo of 1917 he is shown as Sergeant Norris. 
From research by Helen Russell (England):
In August 1914 William Henry Norris enlisted in the South Staffordshire Regiment.   After training he was sent to France and took part in several important engagements.  He was twice wounded in action and as a result was invalided out of the service in August 1916.  He was awarded the 1914-1918 Star for General Service and the Victory Medals  and Kings Certificate.
The Rifle Brigade was part of the South Staffordshire Regiment.

Rose Ann Fisher / Morgan Surname either Fisher or Morgan. Joseph William Dent Joseph's sister Lydia Dent married Harvey Wilkes.
Joseph's children - Jane, Polly, Emily, Ada.
Mary Jane Ashford William Norris Mary Ann Tune Frank Tippin Ballard in his diary written late in life (in the possession of Ralph Ballard) records that:
"Her husband Stephen Gilbert died young.  She had 3 children by him - Edward, Florence, and Tom Henry.
She later remarried Thomas Foxall from Bridgeworth.
Thomas and Mary had 2 children - Bertha and Elsie Foxall.
Bertha married George Williams, a post office employee.  They had a son Lennie.
Elsie married Jack Blackham.
Mary's sister had a daughter Florence who moved to London.  She married Alf Williams, a wool brokers clerk.
Mary's sister, Rose Tune, was only a few years older than Florence Gilbert and they both went to the same convent boarding school after Mary remarried Thomas Foxall.
Rose Tune later married John Coley a veteran of the Boer War where he served with the Coldstream Guards.  They had 2 children - Harold and Olive. 
Mary's brother Ted was a seasonal worker doing hop picking, fruit picking and general farm work.
Between jobs he would stay with his niece Florence Gilbert and her husband Frank Ballard senior."
Stephen Gilbert Licensed Victualler.
Died young.
Children - Edward, Florence, and Tom Henry.
Tom Henry Gilbert Frank Tippin Ballard in his diary written late in life (in the possession of Ralph Ballard) records that:
"Tom did not get on with his stepfather after his mother remarried.  He ran away from home and joined the Warwickshire Regiment and later served in the First Boer War.  He subsequently also served in the Second Boer War with the King's Own Hussars under Prince Alexander (the Earl of Ashlone), and eventually became Prince Alexander's orderly.  He also served in the army in India.
Tom married Gertrude Holtzhausen (Boer) at Pretoria, South Africa.
He later worked as a guard on the Cape-to-Cairo railway."
Edward Gilbert Frank Tippin Ballard in his diary written late in life (in the possession of Ralph Ballard) records that:
"He did not get on with his stepfather Thomas Foxall after his mother remaried and so he left home.
Ted married Florence and had many children.  They lived in Arthur Street, Small Heath, England."
1826 Eliza Hall Paul Ballard (website - http://www.paul-ballard.com/) records that:
"William2 Ballard9 was baptized in 1823 at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.10 He appeared on the census of 6 Jun 1841 in the household of  William Ballard and Mary Mellin at Mount Street,    Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.11 He married Eliza Unknown circa 1842.12 He and Eliza Unknown appeared on the census of 30 Mar 1851 at Sandy Lane, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.13 He and Eliza Unknown appeared on the census of 7 Apr 1861 at 29 House, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.14 He appeared on the census of 5 Apr 1891 at 80 Adderley Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.15"

Pat Horton of England records that Eliza Hall, born 1826, married William Ballard on 15 October 1844, and she died before the 1891 UK census.  Her profession was listed as clog maker.



1823 - 1899 William Henry Tippin Ballard 76 76 Frank Tippin Ballard in his diary written late in life (in the possession of Ralph Ballard) records that:
"William's mother had the maiden name of Tippin and was from Alcester.
William was born in 1825 and died at the age of 74 in 1899.
He was a member of the Birmingham Watch (police).
Later he ran the "Barrell Inn" in Watery Lane, Birmingham, and also a pub in Vere Street.
William had 2 brothers (George and Tom) and 3 sisters (Helen, Polly and Lizzie).
William's housekeeper Mrs. Dobbins of Tilton Road, had papers re Tippin and gave them to George Ballard (William's brother).
George had an adopted son, George Gilbert, whose mother was the actress Tess Gilbert."

Paul Ballard (website - http://www.paul-ballard.com/) records that:
"William2 Ballard9 was baptized in 1823 at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.10  He appeared on the census of 6 Jun 1841 in the household of  William Ballard and Mary Mellin at Mount Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.11
He married Eliza Unknown circa 1842.12 He and Eliza Unknown appeared on the census of 30 Mar 1851 at Sandy Lane, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.13 He and Eliza Unknown appeared on the census of 7 Apr 1861 at 29 House, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.14 He appeared on the census of 5 Apr 1891 at 80 Adderley Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.15
Children:
-  Thomas3 Ballard16 was born in Sep 1842 at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.17 He appeared on the census of 30 Mar 1851 in the household of William Ballard and Eliza Unknown at Sandy Lane, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.18 He married Ann Unknown in Dec
1860 at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.19 He and Ann Unknown appeared on the census of 7 Apr 1861 at Latimer Street South, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.20 He and Ann Unknown appeared on the census of 2 Apr 1871 at 5 Pipers Building, Birmingham,  Warwickshire, England.21 He and Ann Unknown appeared on the census of 4 Apr 1881 at 72 Rushton Street North, Birmingham, Warwickshire,       England.22 He and Ann Unknown appeared on the census of 5 Apr 1891 at Barley Mow Inn, 23 Stafford Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.23
He died before 1901.

-  Eliza3 Ballard36 was born in Sep 1846 at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.37 She appeared on the census of 30 Mar 1851in the household of William Ballard and Eliza Unknown at Sandy Lane, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.18 She appeared on the census of 7 Apr 1861 in the household of William Ballard and Eliza Unknown at 29 House, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.38

-  George3 Ballard39 was born in Jun 1848 at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.40 He appeared on the census of 30 Mar 1851 in the household of William Ballard and Eliza Unknown at Sandy Lane, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.18 He appeared on the census of 7 Apr 1861 in the household of William Ballard and Eliza Unknown at 29 House, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.38 He married Elizabeth  Woodley in Sep 1869 at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.41 He and Elizabeth Woodley appeared on the census of 2 Apr 1871 at 40 1/2 Warner Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.42 He and Elizabeth Woodley appeared on the census of 3 Apr 1881 at 69 Saltley Rd, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.43 He and Elizabeth Woodley appeared on the census of 5 Apr 1891 at 1 Howe Street, Birmingham,  Warwickshire, England.44 He and Elizabeth Woodley appeared on the census of 31 Mar 1901 at 1 Howe Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England.45

Endnotes
9. 7 April 1861 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG9.  [3x.x.]; 6 June 1841 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, HO 107 The National Archive.  [2xxx.]; 6 June 1841 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, HO 107 The National Archive.  [2xxx.].

10. 7 April 1861 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG9.  [3.12.].

11. 6 June 1841 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, HO 107, HO107/1148/13 folio 24 page 10.  [33333].

12. William Ballard; Dec Qtr 1844; Aston; Volume: 16 Page: 352 Eliza Hall ?? 7 April 1861 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG9. [.....].

13. William Ballard; head; married; aged 27; Brass Founder; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Eliza Ballard; wife; married; aged 30; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Thomas Ballard; son; aged 8; at home; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Eliza Ann Ballard; daur; aged 5; at home; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
George Ballard; son; aged 3; at home; born Edgbaston, Warwickshire
Henry Ballard; son; aged 14 months; at home; born Edgbaston, Warwickshire;
30 March 1851 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, HO107, HO107/2049 folio 194 page 14.  [33333].

14. William Ballard; head; married; aged 37; Clog Maker; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Eliza Ballard; wife; married; aged 39; Clog Maker; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Eliza Ballard; daur; aged 15; Clog Maker; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
George Ballard; son; aged 13; Clog Maker; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Henry Ballard; son; aged 12; Clog Maker; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Mary Ballard; daur; aged 8; scholar; bon Birmingham, Warwickshire
Ellen Ballard; daur; aged 5; scholar; born Birmingham, Warwickshire;
7 April 1861 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG9, RG9/2150 folio 50 page 3.  [33333].

15. William Ballard; head; widower; aged 67; Brassfounder; born Birmingham, Warwickshire
Henry Ballard; son; married; aged 42; Brassfounder; born Birmingham, Warwickshire;
5 April 1891 UK National Census, Kew, London, England, RG12 The National Archive, RG12/2406 folio 127 page 6.  [3.333].




Mavis Dawn Moore D. 2007 Albert Charles Robertson 1950 Beverly Robertson Beverly lives in Austin, Texas, USA.
She maintains a family history website at  http://www.myheritage.com/site-235927201/carapook
Elizabeth Baltazar Accountant.
Born in The Phillipines.
Penelope Jill Moore Penny has compiled some of the Moore family history - see the Pictures section in this entry for this information. Matilda Louisa Hall Elsie Hall Mr. Gaile May Hall Louisa Fenton Mr. Fenton Matilda Helms