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children) (a child) (three children) (four children) (two children) (three children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (two children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (two children) (two children) (two children) (three children) (a child) (a child) (two children) (three children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (two children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (two children) (two children) (a child) (two children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (two children) (two children) (a child) (a child) (two children) (a child) (a child) (two children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (two children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (two children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (two children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (two children) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) (a child) 0880 - 0931 Gorm Haraldsson 51 51 0878 Athelstan Saxons 0854 Judith Wessex 0755 Eadberht II Praen 0550 Ricula Hutugast Rowena 0552 Raedwald 0614 St. Wihtburga 0630 St. Aethelthryth Abbess of Ely St. Saethrid Abbess of Faremontier Hlothere St. Earcongota St. Eormengild Wulfhere Of Mercia 0869 - 0919 Aethelflaeda of Mercia 50 50 0672 Cwengyth of Wessex 0725 - 0778 Nibelung de Perrecey 53 53 0563 - 0586 Ingunda of Austrasia 23 23 0492 - 0531 Amalaric of the Ostrogoths 39 39 0560 Chodoswintha of Austrasia Theodoric of the Visigoths 0355 Aelia Flacila of the Spanish Roman Empire 0864 Elfgifu Wessex 0858 - 0899 Harold Parcus 41 41 0845 Sida Denmark 0845 - 0890 Gorm Enske Denmark 45 45 0818 Asloga 0835 - 0885 Frotho or Frodo Denmark 50 50 0784 Heluna England 0786 - 0850 Sigurd Ragnarsson 64 64 0244 Nanna Gewar 0271 Brand Saxon 0310 - 0400 Witta Ii 90 90 0345 Galla Valentiniana of Rome 0272 Julius Constantius 0872 - 0929 Aelfthryth of England 57 57 Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
Page: Baldwin II

Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
Page: 44-16 ,162-17

Title: The Plantagenet Ancestry, by William Henry Turton, 1968
Page: 19
Text: Elfrida of England ,929
0690 - 0747 Claribert of Laon 57 57 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caribert_of_Laon
Caribert (also spelled Charibert), Count of Laon, is the obscure ancestor of Charlemagne. He was the father of the great king's mother, Bertrada of Laon. He was the son of Martin of Laon. In 721, he signed, with his mother Bertrada of Prüm, the fundation act of the Abbey of Prüm. The same year, also with his mother, he made a donation to the Abbey of Echternach. In 744, Bertrada of Laon married Pepin the Short, mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy and later king of the Franks. He died before 762, as stated in an act of his daughter and son-in-law.
0680 Swanhilde Carolingian ~0730 Aude Aldane Austrasia 0654 Alpaide Austrasia 0635 - 0714 Paepin II d'Heristal 79 79 # Note:

    Carolingian mayor of the palace, who reunited the Frankish realms in the late Merovingian period. A grandson of Pepin the Elder, he succeeded to his position in the kingdom of Austrasia around 680. In 687 he extended Carolingian rule to the other Frankish kingdoms, Neustria and Burgundy, but retained members of the Merovingian dynasty as figurehead monarchs in all three. Two years later he extended his control over the Frisians, a pagan people living on the North Sea coast. Pepin's death was followed by a civil war and the succession of his illegitimate son Charles Martel.

# Note: SOURCES:
# Note: Pepin II d'Heristal (Andre Roux: Scrolls from his personal genealogicaL research. The Number refers to the family branch numbers on his many scrolls, 191.)
# Note: (Paul Auge, Nouveau Larousse Universel (13 a 21 Rue Montparnasse et Boulevard Raspail 114: Librairie Larousse, 1948).)
# Note: (Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners in ISBN: 0-8063-1344-7 (1001 North Calvert Street, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 1992), Page 129, Line 171-44.)
# Note: (Alain Decaux Andre Castelot, Marcel Jullian et J. Levron, Histoire de La France et des Francais au Jour le Jour (Librairie Academique Perrin, 1976), Tome 1, Page 369).

    Born: circa 635 in Liege, Luik, Liege, Belgium, son of Ansegis=Ansegisus, Duke d'Austrasie and Sainte Begge=Begga de Landen . Note - between 679 and 714: The services of the Palace were ensured by the Greats [nobles] , known as "Optimates", frequently brought up at a very young age within the King's entourage. Because the Canerarii's task was to watch over the King's chamber and the precious treasure kept in it, it was logical that he should be given financial attributes. Since the eldest officer was the seneschal [senescallus] he was given the task of overseeing the army. The Comes Stabuli' job was to watch over the King's stables. There were others based on various tasks. The most singular office was that of Major Domus, frequently called Mayor of the Palace. Originally, this was only an attendant whose job was to maintain appropriate levels of stocks and supplies, and to coordinate the activities of other personnel in the King's palace. In early 679, Dagobert II, who had returned form an exile in Ireland, attempted to govern Austrasia with the help of his Mayor of the Palace, Goufaud. The Greats prefer Pepin II, grand-son of Pepin de Landen. By the end of 679, Dagobert II is killed in a hunting "accident". Pepin II was the Mayor-of-the-Palace of Austrasie from 679 to 714. In 680, Ebroin and Thierry III of Neustria fight and force Pepin II to flee at Leucofao, near Bois-du-Fay in the Ardennes. When Pepin II recognizes Thierry III as the only King of Gaule, the war between the two is suspended for about 3 years. At Tertry three leagues from Saint-Quentin, Pepin II fought and beat Thierri III, King of Neustrie and in 687 took that kingdom. It is at that time that he begins to be known as Pepin de Herstal or d'Heristal. It is also clear that by that time, the office of Major Domus had become essentially hereditary and that it grew in power as that of the King's declined. Pepin II directed a number of expeditions against the Frisons [defeating Duke Radbod in 689 and sending them Willibrod to convert them to Christianity] , the Alamanians [whom he defeats near Lake Constance in 690] and the Bavarois [who submitted to Pepin II in 691] . When Norbert, Mayor of Neustria and of Burgundy died [whom Pepin II had designated in 688] , circa 700, Pepin installed his own son, Grimoald=Grimaud. Married before 685: Plectrud d'Echternach, daughter of Hugobert=Humbert d'Echternach and Irmina. Married before 686: Aupais=Alpaide. Historians recognize Alpais as Pepin II's one concubine, which seems rather modest for a personage of his status at that time. Died: on 16 Dec 714 in Jupile-sur-Meuse, Belgium.

# Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
# Note: Page: Pepin II
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 190-10
0678 - 0751 Childebrand Austrasia 73 73 0613 - 0698 Beggue Landen 85 85 Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
Page: Arnulf of Metz, Pepin II

Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
Page: 190-9
0591 - 0652 Itte Landen 61 61 0564 - 0639 Pepin Austrasia 75 75 # Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
# Note: Page: Pepin I
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 190-9
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 190-9
# Note: Text: I think this was a misprint - the same death date as his daughter St Begga

http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=tamer&id=I14805
0550 - 0645 Carloman Austrasia 95 95 0885 Herfast de Crepon Arque 0848 - 0899 Alfred (The Great) England 51 51 # Note: Alfred ruled after his 3 older brothers died in battle.
# Note:
# Note:

    Alfred is the only English king to bear the title "The Great." He fought the Danes, with whom he divided up England, eventually taking Mercia and Northumberland from them, along with Wessex, Kent, and London, he had almost all of England at the
    end. He encouraged the production of copies of "The Anglo Saxon Chronicles."

# Note:
# Note:

    Alfred was one of the greatest men in history. He was crowned king at Winchester 871; founded the British Navy, organized the militia, compiled a code of laws, built schools and monasteries, and invited scholars to live at his court. He was a
    good scholar and translated many books.

# Note:
# Note: -------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------
# Note: Following copied from Barry Hummel, Jr, World Connect db=siderhummel, rootsweb.com:
# Note: -------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------
# Note:
# Note:

    From the late 8th century, attacks by Vikings from Scandinavia increased. After a major invasion in 865, the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia were rapidly overrun, and in 871 the Danish army attacked Wessex. The Wessex forces under the
    command of Alfred (reigned 871-99), then aged 21, defeated the Danes at the Battle of Edington in 878. The Danes withdrew to an area north of a frontier running from London to Chester and known as 'Danelaw'.

# Note:
# Note:

    This victory did not finish the Danish threat, and Alfred reorganised the Wessex defences by organising his army on a rota basis, so he could raise a 'rapid reaction force' to deal with raiders whilst still enabling his thegns and peasants to
    tend their farms. Second, Alfred started a building programme of well-defended settlements across southern England as a defence in depth against Danish raiders. Alfred also ordered the building of a navy of new fast ships to patrol the coasts
    and meet invaders before they penetrated inland.

# Note:
# Note:

    Other reforms included establishing a legal code (assembled from the laws of his predecessors and of the kingdoms of Mercia and Kent), and reforming the coinage. Illiterate in Latin until the age of 38, Alfred promoted literacy, religion and
    education, and directed the translation of works of religious instruction, philosophy and history into the vernacular; this was partly so that people could read his orders and legislation. The energetic royal authority demonstrated in Alfred's
    policies presaged the Wessex kings' rule of all England during the next century.

http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=tamer&id=I13031
0871 - 0924 Edward of England 53 53  [Pullen010502.FTW]

Reigned 899-924. He defeated the Danes (918), taking East Anglia, & also conquered Mercia (918) and Northumbria (920).

Edward the Elder (died 924), king of Wessex (899-924), son of King Alfred. He succeeded as king of the Angles and Saxons in 899, despite a rebellion led by his cousin Ethelwald with the support of the Danes of Northumbria and East Anglia. After a protracted struggle he defeated the Danes, and in 912, on the death of his brother-in-law Ethelred, alderman of Mercia, he annexed the cities of London and Oxford and their environs. The Danes submitted formally in 918, and soon thereafter the sovereignty of Edward was acknowledged by the North Welsh, the Scots, the Northumbrians, and the Welsh of Strathclyde. Edward was succeeded by his son Athelstan.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

King Edward the Elder (871?-924) was the son of King Alfred the Great. He became King of Wessex on his father's death in 899, and exceeded Alfred's military achievements, restoring the Danelaw to Saxon rule and reigning in Mercia from 918, after the death of his sister, Ethelfleda. He spent his early reign fighting his cousin Aethelwald, son of Ethelred I. He had about eighteen children from his three marriages, and may have had an illegitimate child, too. He died in about 924, and was buried at Winchester. This portrait is imaginary and was drawn together with portraits of other Anglo-Saxons monarchs by an unknown artist on the 18th century.

His daughter, Eadgifu married King Charles III of France. Her son became King Louis IV of France.


Sources:

   1. Abbrev: Royal Genealogies DB
      Title: Denis R. Reid, Royal Genealogies DB (149 Kimrose Lane, Broadview Heights, Ohio 44147-1258)s, Ohio 44147-1258.
      Note:
      Call number:

      216/237-5364

      Oklahoma

      http://ftp.cac.psu.edu/~saw/royal/royalgen.html ah189@cleveland.freenet.edu
   2. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1p 2
   3. Abbrev: Pullen010502.FTW
      Title: Pullen010502.FTW
      Note:
      Call number:
      Text: Date of Import: Jan 5, 2002
   4. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1 pp 1-4
      Text: b 875, no place
   5. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1 pp 1-4
      Text: d 924 
0810 - 0853 Osburga of the Isle of Wight 43 43 0806 - 0858 Aethelwulf Wessex 52 52 # Note:

    Aethelwulf, also spelled ETHELWULF (d. 858), Anglo-Saxon king in England, the father of King Alfred the Great. As ruler of the West Saxons from 839 to 856, he allied his kingdom of Wessex with Mercia and thereby withstood invasions by Danish
    Vikings.

# Note:
# Note:

    The son of the great West Saxon king Egbert (ruled 802-839), Aethelwulf ascended the throne four years after the Danes had begun large-scale raids on the English coast. In 851 he scored a major victory over a large Danish army at a place called
    Aclea in Surrey. Aethelwulf then married his daughter to the Mercian king Burgred (853), and in 856 he himself married the daughter of Charles II the Bald, king of the West Franks. Aethelwulf was deposed by a rival faction upon his return from
    a pilgrimage to Rome in 856, but he continued to rule Kent and several other eastern provinces until his death. In addition to Alfred the Great (ruled 871-899), three of Aethelwulf's other sons became kings of Wessex. [Encyclopaedia Britannica]

# Note:
# Note: Title: The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999
# Note: Page: 161-1
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 1-14
# Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
# Note: Page: Aethelwulf
# Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
# Note: Page: United Kingdom, Sovereigns of Britain

http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=tamer&id=I13055
0540 Garritrude de Hamage 0538 - 0605 Richemeres von Franconia 67 67 0608 - 0631 Charibert II Aquitaine 23 23 0600 - 0639 Dagobert I Austrasia 38 38 Dagobert I (c. 603 - January 19, 639) was the king of the Franks from 629 to 639.

The son of King Clotaire II, Dagobert became king of Austrasia and on the death of his father, the sole king of the Franks. By 632 he had Bourgogne and Aquitaine under his rule, becoming the most powerful of the Merovingian kings and the most respected ruler in the West. He married five times.

As king, Dagobert I made Paris his capital. During his reign, he built the Altes Schloss Castle in Meersburg, Germany which today is the oldest inhabited castle in that country. Devoutly religious, Dagobert was also responsible for the construction of the Saint Denis Basilica at the site of a Benedictine Monastery in Paris.

Dagobert was the last of the Merovingian kings to wield any real royal power. In 632 the nobles of Austrasia revolted under Mayor of the Palace Pepin I, and Dagobert appeased the rebellious nobles by putting his three-year-old son Sigebert III on the Austrasian throne, thereby ceding royal power in all but name. When Dagobert died in 639, another son, Clovis II, inherited the rest of his kingdom at age five.

This pattern continued for the next century until Pippin III finally deposed the last Merovingian king in 731, establishing the Carolingian dynasty. The Merovingian boy-kings remained ineffective rulers who inherited the throne as young children and lived only long enough to produce a male heir or two, while real power lay in the hands of the noble families (the Old Noblesse) who exercised feudal control over most of the land.

Dagobert was the first of the French kings to be buried in the Royal tombs at Saint Denis Basilica.

King Dagobert was immortalized by the song The good king Dagobert.

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Dagobert I
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dagobert I (c. 603 - January 19, 639) was the king of the Franks from 629 to 639.

The son of King Clotaire II, Dagobert became king of Austrasia and on the death of his father, the sole king of the Franks. By 632 he had Bourgogne and Aquitaine under his rule, becoming the most powerful of the Merovingian kings and the most respected ruler in the West. He married five times.

As king, Dagobert I made Paris his capital. During his reign, he built the Altes Schloss Castle in Meersburg, Germany which today is the oldest inhabited castle in that country. Devoutly religious, Dagobert was also responsible for the construction of the Saint Denis Basilica at the site of a Benedictine Monastery in Paris.

Dagobert was the last of the Merovingian kings to wield any real royal power. In 632 the nobles of Austrasia revolted under Mayor of the Palace Pepin I, and Dagobert appeased the rebellious nobles by putting his three-year-old son Sigebert III on the Austrasian throne, thereby ceding royal power in all but name. When Dagobert died in 639, another son, Clovis II, inherited the rest of his kingdom at age five.

This pattern continued for the next century until Pippin III finally deposed the last Merovingian king in 751, establishing the Carolingian dynasty. The Merovingian boy-kings remained ineffective rulers who inherited the throne as young children and lived only long enough to produce a male heir or two, while real power lay in the hands of the noble families (the Old Noblesse) who exercised feudal control over most of the land.

Dagobert was the first of the French kings to be buried in the Royal tombs at Saint Denis Basilica.

King Dagobert was immortalized by the song Le bon roi Dagobert (The good king Dagobert), a nursery rhyme featuring exchanges between the king and his chief adviser, St. Eligius (Eloi in the French text). The satirical rhymes place Dagobert in various ridiculous positions, from which Eligius' good advice manages to extract him. The text, which probably originated in the 18th century, became extremely popular as an expression of the anti-monarchist sentiment of the French Revolution. Other than placing Dagobert and Eligius in their respective roles, it has no historical accuracy.
0585 - 0618 Haldetrude de Bourgogne 33 33 0530 Austregilde Aiga 0525 Betton de Orleans 0525 Theodebald de Baviere 0500 Parovius de Reims 0475 Pretextat de Reims 0505 Ragnora Cambrai 0500 Mr de Pastor 0465 - 0508 Ragnomer Cambrai 43 43 0788 - 0840 Redburga Of Wessex 52 52  [Pullen010502.FTW]

Said to have been sister of King of Franks, who would have been Charlemagne, but there is little information about her.



Sources:

   1. Abbrev: Royal Genealogies DB
      Title: Denis R. Reid, Royal Genealogies DB (149 Kimrose Lane, Broadview Heights, Ohio 44147-1258)s, Ohio 44147-1258.
      Note:
      Call number:

      216/237-5364

      Oklahoma

      http://ftp.cac.psu.edu/~saw/royal/royalgen.html ah189@cleveland.freenet.edu
      Text: Redburh, no parents. Said to have been sister to the King of the Franks. Other sources have her born in Wessex.
   2. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1 pp 1-4
      Text: Raedburh. no parents
   3. Abbrev: Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy
      Title: Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (rev. ed, Pimlico Random House, London 1989, 1996)imlico Random House, London 1989, 1996.
      Note:
      Call number:

      J.H. Garner
      Text: If she was sister to the King of Franks, she would be a sister of Charlemagne.
   4. Abbrev: Pullen010502.FTW
      Title: Pullen010502.FTW
      Note:
      Call number:
      Text: Date of Import: Jan 5, 2002
0775 - 0839 Ecgbert III Wessex 64 64 # Note: Egbert became the first King of Wessex in 802, he also included Kent in his kingdome in 827. He is considered to be the first king of England--however it only included the south and west (Kent and Wessex areas).
# Note:
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 1-13
# Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
# Note: Page: United Kingdom, Sovereigns

http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=tamer&id=I13064
0758 - 0788 Ealhmund Kent 30 30 0732 - 0796 Eaba Atheling of Wessex 64 64 # Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 1-12


Offa became King of Mercia in AD 757, and, as a result of subsequent military successes, effectively ruled the whole of England south of the River Humber over a period. The date of his birth is unknown.

He was a devout Christian, a contemporary of Charlemagne, and founded the archdiocese of Lichfield with the approval of Pope Adrian I. His power spread over such a large part of England, that he prided himself to be the King of England; he was the only king of Western Europe to be regarded as an equal by Charlemagne. He introduced silver coinage in England, producing the first English silver pennies, as well as a copy of the gold dinar of the Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur dated 157AH, which differs from the original by adding the inscription OFFA REX. Since this coin contains the Arabic profession of faith in Allah, it has been cited by some as proof that Offa had converted to Islam. However, it is infinitely more likely that the coin was produced in order to trade with Islamic Spain, and the king, his engravers, and officials, simply copied the Arabic coin without any comprehension of what the inscriptions said (particularly since "OFFA REX" is upside down in relation to the Arabic script, and the word "year" is misspelled in Arabic).

Following the murder of his cousin, King Æthelbald in 757, Offa defeated and exiled Beornrad, Æthelbald's successor, thus seizing the throne of Mercia. A series of campaigns against the Kentish Saxons led eventually to the decisive Battle of Otford in 775. The Battle of Bensington in Oxfordshire ended the power of the West Saxons.

He is perhaps best known for Offa's Dyke, a great earthen wall between England and Wales. However, although this landmark is named after Offa, it is not known with certainty to what extent he was responsible for its construction. Some attribute the building of all or parts of the dyke to earlier periods.

Sir Frank M. Stenton in his authoritative history, Anglo-Saxon England, believed that Offa was perhaps the greatest king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, the proof of his ability obscured by the lack of a historian to describe his achievements. "No other Anglo-Saxon king ever regarded the world at large with so secular a mind or so acute a political sense," writes Sir Frank.

Offa died July 26, 796. He had exerted himself to secure that his son Ecgfrith would succeed him, but Ecgfrith was able to hold onto the throne for only five months. After his death, Mercia fell into decline. Only a quarter of a century after his death (825), the role of leading English power passed to Wessex.
0706 Eoppa Atheling of Wessex Sources:

   1. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1 pp 1-2
   2. Abbrev: Pullen010502.FTW
      Title: Pullen010502.FTW
      Note:
      Call number:
      Text: Date of Import: Jan 5, 2002 
0680 - 0718 Ingild Atheling of Wessex 38 38 # Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 1-9

Sources:

   1. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1 p 1
   2. Abbrev: Pullen010502.FTW
      Title: Pullen010502.FTW
      Note:
      Call number:
      Text: Date of Import: Jan 5, 2002
   3. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1 p 1
      Text: no place 
0644 Cenred Atheling of Wessex Children

   1.  Cwengyth of Wessex b: 672 in of Wessex, England
   2.  Cuthburh of Wessex b: 674 in of Wessex, England
   3.  Ine of Wessex b: 676 in of Wessex, England
   4. Kenten of Wessex b: 678 in of Wessex, England
   5. Ingild Atheling of Wessex b: 680 in of Wessex, England
   6.  Cwenburh Abbess of Wimborne b: 692
   7.  Ine of Wessex b: 676 in of Wessex, England
   8.  Cwenburh Abbess of Wimborne b: 692

Sources:

   1. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1 p 1
   2. Abbrev: Pullen010502.FTW
      Title: Pullen010502.FTW
      Note:
      Call number:
      Text: Date of Import: Jan 5, 2002 
0622 Ceolwald Wessex 0600 Cutha (Cuthwulf) Wessex # Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 1-6
0564 - 0584 Cuthine Wessex 20 20 # Note: AD 577. This year Cuthwin and Ceawlin fought with the Britons, and slew three kings... and took from them three cities, Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath."
# Note:
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 1-5

http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=tamer&id=I13082
0547 - 0591 Ceawlin Wessex 44 44 0525 - 0560 Cynric Wessex 35 35 0493 Crioda Wessex # Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 1-2
0467 - 0534 Cerdic Wessex 67 67 # Note:

    Cerdic was born before 495 and died in 534. King of the West Saxons 519-534, was a Saxon earldorman who founded a settlement on the coast of Hampshire, England in 495, assumed the title of King of the West Saxons in 519, and became ancestor of
    the English royal line.

# Note:
# Note: "AD 495. This year came two leaders into Briain, Cerdic and Cynric, his son, with five ships....
# Note:
# Note: 519. This year Cerdic and Cynric undertook the government of the West Saxons; the same year they fought with the Britons at a place called Charford. From that day they have reigned the children of the West Saxon kings.
# Note:
# Note: 530. They conquered the isle of Wight.
# Note:
# Note: 532. Crowned at Winchester Cathedral.
# Note:
# Note: 534. This year died Cerdic, the first king of the West Saxons. Cynric his son succeeded to the government, and reigned afterwards twenty six winters."
# Note:
# Note: (Anglo-Saxon Chronicles)
# Note:
# Note: "The Royal Line" chart has Cerdic going back to Zarah, son of Judah of the Bible.
# Note:
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 1-1

http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=tamer&id=I13091
0439 Elesa 0411 Esla 0383 Gewis 0355 Wig 0327 Freawine 0299 Frithogar of Deira 0785 Oslac Grand Butler of England 0751 - 0812 William Autun 61 61 # Occupation: Septimania & Autum
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 48-16
# Note: Text: father of Wialdruth
0730 - 0804 Thierry Autun 74 74 0710 - 0750 Rolande Merovingian 40 40 0660 - 0712 Bertha Merovingian 52 52 0640 Amlaberga FitzWandregisi 0630 - 0691 Theodard Merovingian 61 61 0658 Viletrude 0654 Grimaldo 0628 - 0717 Theodon 89 89 0602 - 0695 Grimaldo 93 93 0576 Tossilo 0554 Regintrude Bavaria 0550 Theodon III 0528 Gela Bavaria 0524 Garibaldo Bavaria 0498 Tassilo I Bavaria 0472 Theobalot Bavaria 0758 - 0810 Ella King of Deira 52 52 0720 - 0762 Aethelbert II of Kent 42 42 0670 - 0725 Wihtred Of Kent 55 55 0685 Cynegth 0640 - 0673 Egbert I OF Kent 33 33 Sources:
Media: gedcom
Abbrev: Weber, Jim
Title: The Phillips, Weber, Kirk, & Staggs families of the Pacific Northwest
Author: Weber, Jim
Publication: 14 Jul 2005; http://wc.rootsweb.com;
Date: 30 Jul 2005
0610 - 0664 Earconbert Of Kent 54 54 0610 - 0700 St. Sexburga Of Wessex 90 90 0580 - 0637 Eadbald Of Kent 57 57 0552 - 0615 St. Aethelbert I Of Kent 63 63 0555 Bertha 0522 - 0560 Eormenric Of Kent 38 38 0492 - 0540 Octa Of Kent 48 48 0462 - 0512 Oeric Of Kent 50 50 0432 - 0488 Hengest Of Kent 56 56 0327 Wihgils 0580 - 0654 Anna Of East Anglia 74 74 0580 Saewara 0550 Eni Of East Anglia 0520 - 0593 Tytila Of East Anglia 73 73 Fnu Freawinesdotter 0575 - 0612 Theudebert de Austrasia 37 37 0575 - 0609 Bellichildis 34 34 0555 - 0596 Childebert of Franks 41 41 Childebert II (570-595), king of Austrasia, was a son of Sigebert I.

When his father was assassinated in 575, Childebert was taken from Paris by Gundobald, one of his faithful leudes, to Metz, where he was recognized as sovereign. He was then only five years old, and during his long minority the power was disputed between his mother Brunhilda and the nobles.

Chilperic, king at Paris, and King Gontran of Burgundy, sought alliance with Childebert, who was adopted by both in turn. But after the assassination of Chilperic in 584, and the dangers occasioned to the Frankish monarchy by the expedition of Gundobald in 585, Childebert threw himself unreservedly into the arms of Gontran.

By the pact of Andelot in 587 Childebert was recognized as Gontran s heir, and with his uncle's help he quelled the revolts of the nobles and succeeded in seizing the castle of Wo wre. Many attempts were made on his life by Fredegond, who was anxious to secure Gontran's inheritance for her son Clotaire II.

On the death of Gontran in 592 Childebert annexed the kingdom of Burgundy, and even contemplated seizing Clotaire's estates and becoming sole king of the Franks. He died, however, in 595. Childebert II had had relations with the Byzantine Empire, and fought in 585 in the name of the emperor Maurice against the Lombards in Italy.
0557 Failende 0535 - 0618 Brunhilde Visigoths 83 83 Frankish queen, wife of Sigebert I of the East Frankish kingdom of Austrasia; daughter of Athanagild, the Visigothic king of Spain. After the murder (567) of her sister Galswintha, who was the wife of
Sigebert’s brother Chilperic I of the West Frankish kingdom of Neustria, and Chilperic’s marriage to his mistress Fredegunde, Brunhilda was the major instigator in the war against Neustria. The struggle continued between Brunhilda and Fredegunde after the death (575) of Sigebert and the murder (584) of Chilperic. Throughout the reigns of her son, Childebert II, and of two grandsons, Brunhilda was the actual ruler of Austrasia and of Burgundy, when by her design that country was united with Austrasia after the death (592) of King Guntram. She was endowed with the gifts of a great statesman, but her unscrupulousness in the execution of her plans earned her the fierce hatred of the nobles, whom she nonetheless controlled. She was finally betrayed by them to Fredegunde’s son, Clotaire II of Neustria. He put her to a horrible death.
0647 - 0690 Martin of Laon 43 43 0650 - 0692 Clotilde of Heristal of Metz 42 42 0840 - 0871 Aethelred I King of Wessex 31 31 Medical: Developed the "wasting cough" (poss. tuberculosis?) as a result of years of exposure to the elements during a guerrilla warfare campaign against the Vikings.

[Pullen010502.FTW]

Reigned 866-871
Banner was a golden dragon (the golden dragon was the banner either of the Kingdom of Wessex, or that of AEthelred, or that of his younger brother Alfred the Great King of the West Saxons & England's). (Srce: The Hammer & The Cross, by Harry Harrison, p. 304, Ch. 11, "Carl" section).


Sources:

   1. Abbrev: Royal Genealogies DB
      Title: Denis R. Reid, Royal Genealogies DB (149 Kimrose Lane, Broadview Heights, Ohio 44147-1258)s, Ohio 44147-1258.
      Note:
      Call number:

      216/237-5364

      Oklahoma

      http://ftp.cac.psu.edu/~saw/royal/royalgen.html ah189@cleveland.freenet.edu
      Text: Ethelred I
   2. Abbrev: University of Hull Royal Database (England)
      Title: Brian Tompsett, Dept of Computer Science, University of Hull Royal Database (England) (copyright 1994, 1995, 1996)base (England)base (England). copyright 1994, 1995, 1996.
      Note:
      Call number:

      usually reliable but sometimes includes hypothetical lines, mythological figures, etc

      WWW, University of Hull, Hull, UK HU6 7RX bct@tardis.ed.ac.uk
   3. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1B p 5
   4. Abbrev: Pullen010502.FTW
      Title: Pullen010502.FTW
      Note:
      Call number:
      Text: Date of Import: Jan 5, 2002
   5. Abbrev: Royal Genealogies DB
      Title: Denis R. Reid, Royal Genealogies DB (149 Kimrose Lane, Broadview Heights, Ohio 44147-1258)s, Ohio 44147-1258.
      Note:
      Call number:

      216/237-5364

      Oklahoma

      http://ftp.cac.psu.edu/~saw/royal/royalgen.html ah189@cleveland.freenet.edu
      Text: d 871
   6. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who
      Title: Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America bef 1760 (7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992)ame to America bef 1760ame to America bef 1760. 7th ed Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore 1992.
      Note:
      Call number:

      Same ref source as earlier ed, "Ancestral Roots of 60 Colonists who Came to New England 1623-1650" ed 1-6

      good to very good

      J.H. Garner
      Page: line 1B p 5
      Text: d 872 
0450 - 0507 Alaric of the Visigoths 57 57 Alaric II (died 507), king of the Visigoths (484-507), succeeding his father, Euric. He ruled the central and southern regions of Gaul (modern-day France) and most of Spain. Like most Visigoths, Alaric adhered to Arianism; this gave the Frankish king Clovis I, an orthodox Christian, an excuse for making war on him. Alaric's forces were completely routed at Vouillé, near Poitiers (in present-day France), and he himself was overtaken and slain by Clovis. This defeat brought to an end the rule of the Visigoths in Gaul. Alaric is also known for the Breviary of Alaric, an abstract of Roman laws and decrees prepared at his direction for use in his domains. This document is a primary source of knowledge about the application of Roman law in nations formed from the disintegrated Roman Empire.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved
0472 - 0562 Theudigote 90 90 0522 - 0567 Athanagild of the Ostrogoths 45 45 0518 Galswinthe of the Vandals 0420 - 0484 Eorik of the Visigoths 64 64 0420 Ragnachilde Susamunde 0390 - 0451 Theodoric of the Visigoths 61 61 0400 Amalberge 0370 - 0410 Alaric of the Visigoths 40 40 Alaric I (about 370-410), king of the Visigoths (395-410), born on an island in the delta of the Danube River. During his youth, the Visigoths migrated westward, under attack from the Huns at their rear. The Visigoths were used as auxiliary mercenary troops by the Roman emperor Theodosius I, and Alaric first appears in history in 394 as a leader of these troops. Upon the death of Theodosius in 395, the Visigoths renounced their allegiance to Rome and acknowledged Alaric as king. He led his troops into Greece; sacked Corinth, Árgos, and Sparta; and spared Athens only in return for a heavy ransom. After being defeated by the Roman general Flavius Stilicho, Alaric retired with his plunder and secured from the new Eastern Roman emperor, Arcadius, a commission as prefect of the Roman province of Illyricum. In 402 Alaric invaded Italy but was again defeated by Stilicho. Later Alaric was persuaded to join forces with the Western Roman emperor Honorius, who was planning war with the Eastern Empire.

When Arcadius died in 408, Rome abandoned its plan to move against the East, whereupon Alaric demanded 1814 kg (4000 lb) of gold as indemnity. On the insistence of Stilicho, the Roman government agreed to this demand, but soon afterward Honorius had Stilicho executed and abrogated the agreement. Alaric then invaded Italy, besieged Rome, and exacted a vast ransom. In 410 his troops captured and sacked Rome. A disastrous storm forced Alaric to abandon his next campaign, an invasion of Sicily and North Africa. He died shortly afterward and was succeeded by his brother, Ataulf.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.


Alaric, (also known as Alaricus, Alaric the Goth, Alaric, King of the Visigoths and Alaric I) (about AD 370-410), the first Germanic leader to take the city of Rome, was likely born about 370 on an island named Peuce (the Fir) at the mouth of the Danube. He was wellborn, his father kindred to the Balthi or Bold-men, next in worth among Gothic fighters to the Amals. He was a Goth and belonged to the western branch, or Visigoths- who at the time of his birth dwelt in the land now known as Bulgaria, having fled beyond the wide estuary marshes of the Danube to its southern shore, so as not to be followed by their foe from the steppe, the Huns.

In the year 394 Alaric served as a leader of foederati (Germanic irregular troops under Roman command, organized by their own tribal structures) under the emperor Theodosius I in the campaign in which he crushed the usurper Eugenius. As the Battle of Frigidus, which terminated this campaign, was fought at the passes of the Julian Alps, Alaric probably learnt at this time the weakness of the natural defences of Italy on her northeastern frontier at the head of the Adriatic.

The employment of barbarians as foederati, became a common practice with the emperors in the 4th century. The provincial population, crushed under a load of taxation, could no longer furnish soldiers in the numbers needed for the defence of the empire; and on the other hand, the emperors, ever fearful that a brilliantly successful general of Roman extraction might be proclaimed Augustus by his followers, preferred that high military command should be in the hands of a man to whom such an accession of dignity was as yet impossible. But there was obviously a danger that one day a barbarian leader of his own troops in the service of the empire might turn his armed force and the skill in war that he had acquired in that service, against his trembling masters, and without caring to assume the title of Augustus might ravage and ruin the countries which he had undertaken to defend. This danger became a reality when in the year 395 the able and valiant Theodosius died, leaving the empire to be divided between his incapable sons Arcadius and Flavius Augustus Honorius, the former taking the eastern and the latter the western portion, and each under the control of a minister who bitterly hated the minister of the other.

In the shifting of offices which took place at the beginning of the new reigns, Alaric apparently hoped that he would receive one of the great military commands of the empire, and thus instead of being a mere commander of foederati would have under his orders a large part of the imperial legions. This, however, was denied him. His disappointed ambition prompted him to take the step for which his countrymen were longing, for they too were grumbling at the withdrawal of the "gifts", in other words the veiled ransom-money, which for many years they had been accustomed to receive. They raised him on a shield and acclaimed him as a king; leader and followers both resolving (says Jordanes the Gothic historian) "rather to seek new kingdoms by their own work, than to slumber in peaceful subjection to the rule of others." Alaric struck first at the Eastern Empire. He marched to the neighbourhood of Constantinople, but finding himself unable to undertake the siege of that superbly strong city, he retraced his steps westward and then marched southward through Thessaly and the unguarded pass of Thermopylae into Greece. The details of his campaign are not very clearly stated, and the story is further complicated by the plots and counterplots of Rufinus, chief minister of the Eastern Empire, and Stilicho, the virtual regent of the western empire, and the murder of the former by his rebellious soldiers. Alaric's invasion of Greece lasted two years (395-396), when he ravaged Attica but spared Athens, which at once capitulated to the conqueror, when he penetrated into Peloponnesus and captured its most famous cities, Corinth, Argos, and Sparta, selling many of their inhabitants into slavery. Here, however, his victorious career ended. Stilicho, who had come a second time to the assistance of Arcadius and who was undoubtedly a skilful general, succeeded in shutting up the Goths in the mountains of Pholoe on the borders of Elis and Arcadia in the peninsula. From thence Alaric escaped with difficulty, and not without some suspicion of connivance on the part of Stilicho. He crossed the Gulf of Corinth and marched with the plunder of Greece northwards to Epirus.

Next came an astounding transformation. For some mysterious reason, probably connected with the increasing estrangement between the two sections of the empire, the ministers of Arcadius conferred upon Alaric the government of some part- it can hardly have been the whole- of the important prefecture of Illyricum. Here, ruling the Danubian provinces, he was on the confines of the two empires, and, in the words of the poet Claudian, he "sold his alternate oaths to either throne," and made the imperial arsenals prepare the weapons with which to arm his Gothic followers for the next campaign. It was probably in the year 400 (but the dates of these events are rather uncertain) that Alaric made his first invasion of Italy, co-operating with another Gothic chieftain named Radagaisus. Supernatural influences were not wanting to urge him to this great enterprise. Some lines of the Roman poet inform us that he heard a voice proceeding from a holy grove, "Break off all delays, Alaric. This very year thou shalt force the Alpine barrier of Italy; thou shalt penetrate to the city." The prophecy was not at this time fulfilled. After spreading desolation through North Italy and striking terror into the citizens of Rome, Alaric was met by Stilicho at Pollentia, modern-day Piedmont), and the battle which then followed on April 6, 402, (coinciding with Easter), was a victory for Rome, though a costly one, and effectually barred the further progress of the Goths. Alaric was an Arian Christian who trusted to the sanctity of Easter for immunity from attack, and the enemies of Stilicho reproached him for having gained his victory by taking an impious advantage of the great Christian festival. The wife of Alaric is said to have been taken prisoner after this battle; and there is some reason to suppose that he was hampered in his movements by the presence with his forces of large numbers of women and children, having given to his invasion of Italy the character of a national migration. After another defeat before Verona, Alaric left Italy, probably in 403. He had not indeed "penetrated to the city," but his invasion of Italy had produced important results; it had caused the imperial residence to be transferred from Milan to Ravenna, it had necessitated the withdrawal of the Twentieth Legion from Britain, and it had probably facilitated the great invasion of Vandals, Suevi and Alani into Gaul, which lost Gaul and the provinces of Spain to the Empire.

We next hear of Alaric as the friend and ally of his late opponent Stilicho. The estrangement between the eastern and western courts had in 407 become so bitter as to threaten civil war, and Stilicho was actually proposing to use the forces of Alaric in order to enforce the claims of Honorius to the prefecture of Illyricum. The death of Arcadius in May 408 caused milder counsels to prevail in the western cabinet, but Alaric, who had actually entered Epirus, demanded in a somewhat threatening manner that if he were thus suddenly bidden to desist from war, he should be paid handsomely for what in modern language would be called the expenses of mobilization. The sum which he named was a large one, 4000 pounds of gold, but under strong pressure from Stilicho the Roman senate consented to promise its payment.

Three months later Stilicho himself and the chief ministers of his party were treacherously slain in pursuance of an order extracted from the timid and jealous Honorius; and in the disturbances which followed the wives and children of the barbarian foederati throughout Italy were slain. The natural consequence was that these men to the number of 30,000 flocked to the camp of Alaric, clamouring to be led against their cowardly enemies. He accordingly crossed the Julian Alps, and in September 408 stood before the walls of Rome (now with no capable general like Stilicho to defend her) and began a strict blockade.

No blood was shed this time; hunger was the weapon on which Alaric relied. When the ambassadors of the Senate in treating for peace tried to terrify him with their hints of what the despairing citizens might accomplish, he gave with a laugh his celebrated answer, "The thicker the hay, the easier mowed!" After much bargaining, the famine-stricken citizens agreed to pay a ransom of more than two thousand pounds in weight of gold, besides precious garments of silk and leather and three thousand pounds of pepper. Thus ended Alaric's first siege of Rome.

At this time, and indeed throughout his career, Alaric's primary goal was not to pull down the fabric of the empire but to secure for himself, by negotiation with its rulers, a regular and recognized position within its borders. His demands were certainly large- the concession of a block of territory 200 miles long by 150 wide between the Danube and the Gulf of Venice (to be held probably on some terms of nominal dependence on the empire), and the title of commander-in-chief of the imperial army. Great as the terms were, the emperor would probably have been well advised to grant them; but Honorius was one of those timid and feeble folk who are equally unable to make either war or peace, and refused to look beyond the question of his own personal safety, guaranteed as it was by the dikes and marshes of Ravenna. As all attempts to conduct a satisfactory negotiation with this emperor failed before his impenetrable stupidity, Alaric, after instituting a second siege and blockade of Rome in 409, came to terms with the senate, and with their consent set up a rival emperor and invested the prefect of the city, a Greek named Priscus Attalus, with the diadem and the purple robe. He, however, proved quite unfit for his high position; he rejected the advice of Alaric and lost in consequence the province of Africa, the granary of Rome, which was defended by the partisans of Honorius. The weapon of famine, formerly in the hand of Alaric, was thus turned against him, and loud in consequence were the murmurs of the Roman populace. Honorius was also greatly strengthened by the arrival of six legions sent from Constantinople to his assistance by his nephew Theodosius II. Alaric therefore cashiered his puppet emperor Attalus after eleven months of ineffectual rule, and once more tried to reopen negotiations with Honorius. These negotiations would probably have succeeded but for the malign influence of another Goth, Sarus, the hereditary enemy of Alaric and his house. When Alaric found himself once more outwitted by the machinations of such a foe, he marched southward and began in deadly earnest his third, his ever-memorable siege of Rome. No defence apparently was possible; there are hints, not well substantiated, of treachery; there is greater probability of surprise. However this may be--for our information at this point of the story is miserably meagre--on August 24, 410 Alaric and his Goths burst in by the Salarian gate on the north-east of the city, and she who was of late the mistress of the world lay at the feet of the Goths. The Goths showed themselves not absolutely ruthless conquerors. The contemporary ecclesiastics recorded with wonder many instances of their clemency: the Christian churches saved from ravage; protection granted to vast multitudes both of pagans and Christians who took refuge therein; vessels of gold and silver which were found in a private dwelling, spared because they "belonged to St. Peter"; at least one case in which a beautiful Roman matron appealed, not in vain, to the better feelings of the Gothic soldier who attempted her dishonour; but even these exceptional instances show that Rome was not entirely spared those scenes of horror which usually accompany the storming of a besieged city. We do not, however, hear of any damage wrought by fire, save in the case of Sallust's palace, which was situated close to the gate by which the Goths had made their entrance; nor is there any reason to attribute any extensive destruction of the buildings of the city to Alaric and his followers.

His work being done, his fated task, and Alaric having penetrated to the city, nothing remained for him but to die. He marched southwards into Calabria. He desired to invade Africa, which on account of its corn crops was now the key of the position; but his ships were dashed to pieces by a storm in which many of his soldiers perished. He died soon after, probably of fever, and his body was buried under the river-bed of the Busento, the stream being temporarily turned aside from its course while the grave was dug wherein the Gothic chief and some of his most precious spoils were interred. When the work was finished the river was turned back into its usual channel, and the captives by whose hands the labour had been accomplished were put to death that none might learn their secret. He was succeeded in the command of the Gothic army by his brother-in-law, Ataulphus.

Our chief authorities for the career of Alaric are the historian Orosius and the poet Claudian, both strictly contemporary; Zosimus, a somewhat prejudiced pagan historian, who lived probably about half a century after the death of Alaric; and Jordanes, a Goth who wrote the history of his nation in the year 551, basing his work on the earlier history of Cassiodorus (now lost), which was written about 520. (T. II.) ---- See also: Alaric II ----- {{1911}} Category:Ancient Roman enemies and allies

0321 - 0375 Flavius Valentinianus of Rome 54 54 0339 - 0387 Justina Augusta of Rome 48 48 0300 Gratian of Rome 0310 - 0361 Vettus Justus of Rome 51 51 0315 Galla of Rome Neratia of Rome 0814 - 0884 Knud Harde-Knut Sigurdsson 70 70 0244 Baeldaeg Odinsson Bel-Bael-Baal = My Lord/Master
Woden-Dagon = Fish God
Daeg = Fish
0249 - 0350 Wecta With I 101 101 0564 Gerberga Franconia 0535 - 0577 Sigbert I Franks 42 42 Sources:

   1. Abbrev: University of Hull Royal Database (England)
      Title: Brian Tompsett, Dept of Computer Science, University of Hull Royal Database (England) (copyright 1994, 1995, 1996)base (England)base (England). copyright 1994, 1995, 1996.
      Note:
      Call number:

      usually reliable but sometimes includes hypothetical lines, mythological figures, etc

      WWW, University of Hull, Hull, UK HU6 7RX bct@tardis.ed.ac.uk
      Text: s of Chlothar I the Old of the Franks King of Franks
   2. Abbrev: Ancestry of Richard Plantagenet & Cecily de Nevill
      Title: Ernst-Friedrich Kraentzler, Ancestry of Richard Plantagenet & Cecily de Neville (published by author 1978)evilleeville. published by author 1978.
      Note:
      Call number:

      J.H. Garner
      Page: chart 1780
      Text: s of Chlodomer of the Franks King of Orléans, no title
   3. Abbrev: Pullen010502.FTW
      Title: Pullen010502.FTW
      Note:
      Call number:
      Text: Date of Import: Jan 5, 2002 
0593 Emma de Austrasia 0762 daughter of Kent 0676 - 0741 Charles (Martel The Hammer) Austrasia 65 65 # Note: Victor over the Saracens at Tours, Poitiers.

    Carolingian ruler of the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia (in present northeastern France and southwestern Germany). Charles, whose surname means the hammer, was the son of Pepin of Herstal and the grandfather of Charlemagne. Pepin was mayor of the palace under the last kings of the Merovingian dynasty. When he died in 714, Charles, an illegitimate son, was imprisoned by his father's widow, but he escaped in 715 and was proclaimed mayor of the palace by the Austrasians. A war between Austrasia and the Frankish kingdom of Neustria (now part of France) followed, and at the end of it Charles became the undisputed ruler of all the Franks. Although he was engaged in wars against the Alamanni, Bavarians, and Saxons, his greatest achievements were against the Muslims from Spain, who invaded France in 732. Charles defeated them near Poitiers in a great battle in which the Muslim leader, Abd-ar-Rahman, the emir of Spain, was killed. The progress of Islam, which had filled all Christendom with alarm, was thus checked for a time. Charles drove the Muslims out of the Rhone valley in 739, when they had again advanced into France as far as Lyon, leaving them nothing of their possessions north of the Pyrenees beyond the Aude River. Charles died in Quierzy, on the Oise River, leaving the kingdom divided between his two sons, Carloman (circa 715-54) and Pepin the Short.

# Note: SOURCES:
# Note: Charles Martel (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 191.)

# Note: (Paul, Nouveau Larousse Universel.)
# Note: (Rosamond, Frankish kingdom under Carolingians.)
# Note: (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, Page 129, Line 171-43.)
# Note: (Andre Castelot, Histoire de La France, Tome 1, Pages 271 - 273, 369).

    Born: in 686 in Chateau de Franchemont, Belgium, son of Pepin II d'Heristal and Aupais=Alpaide N? , The Chateau de Franchemont is near Spa and also Verviers, which may have encompassed Heristal. During World War II, the resistance used the tunnels under the castle to hide people and supplies from the German hordes.

    Married before 715: Rotrude=Chrotrud, Duchesse d'Austrasie , daughter of Saint Lievin=Leutwinus, Bishop de Treves and N. d'Istrie. Note - between 715 and 741: Toward the end of 715, Charles escaped from the prison his step-grandmother had locked him in, and rallies the Austrasians. In March, 716, however, in his first conflict with the Frisons who were edging their way up the Rhine, Charles is routed. A few weeks later, he is able to beat the Neustrians on the Ambeve River, near Malmedy. on 21 March 717, he is victorious over the Neustrians again, this time at Vincy, near Cambrai and he forces Chilperic II and his Mayor of the Palace, Rainfroi to flee to Paris. In 714, Charles takes the title Mayor of the Palace of Neustria, and gives the Neustrians a new King, Clotaire IV, son of Thierry III [who had died in 691] . The same year, his armies ravage Saxe all the way to the Weser River. In early 719, Clotaire IV died, and Rainfroi and Chilperic II obtain the assistance of Eudes, Duke of Aquitaine in a campaign against Charles. Charles defeats both armies; however, since Clotaire IV is dead, Charles recognizes Chilperic, but he becomes the Major Domus of both Neustria and Austrasia. When Chilperic II died in 721, Charles pulled Thierry IV, young adolescent son of Dagobert III, out of the Monastery of Chelles. from 722 to 724, the arabs mount successful offensives and pillage Autun. Charles, worried about maintaining the Franc authority, Charles Martel mounts a frightfully succesful campaign in Bavaria against the Allemanians and the Frisons, and he destroys their temples. Theutbald, Duke of the Allemanians is essentially powerless. In Gaule, toward the end of the decade, Charles turns his attention to Eudes, Duke of Aquitaine, who had maintained too independent an attitude. Aquitaine is ravaged in the process. In 730, Eudes allies himself with an Emir of northern Spain, Othmann ben Abi-Nessa and the arabs agin a foothold in southern France. By 732, a new emir, Adb-el-Rahman invades from Pampelona, cross the Pyrenees near Roncevaux, take and pillage Bordeaux, burning all the churches. In the Summer, they take Poitiers and destroy the basilica of Saint-Hilaire-hors-les-murs. On Saturday 17 October 732, Charles Martel's armies take the great Roman way linking Chatellerault to Poitiers and at 20 km North of Poitiers, at Moussais-la-Bataille, it encounters the arabs. They would observe each other for 7 days before the Battle of Poitiers would take place.

    The Battle of Poitiers: One Chronicler, Fredegaire described the action as follows: "Duke Eudes, being viewed with derision throughout his lands, called against Prince Charles and the nation of the Francs, that most perfidious race of the Sarrasins [that is not accurate as Eudes had first allied himself with an Emir, but then called upon Charles for aid when events turned on him] . The Sarrasins, led by their King, Abd-el-Rahman cross Gerona [another error as they set out from Pampelona and crossed the pyrenees at Roncevaux] . After having burned the churches, and crushed the population, they arrive in Poitiers. When they burn the Basilica and destroy the residence of Saint Martin, Prince Charles put into action an audacious plan and the order of Battle is given. With the aid of Jesus Christ, our Lord, our valorous Prince destroys their tents and flies into combat to crush them..."

# Note: A less glorious account is given by a monk of the Abbey of Moissac:

    "The King of Spain, Abd-el-Rahman, having crossed the Pyrenees with his large army from Pampelona, laid siege to Bordeaux. Then Eudes, Prince of Aquitaine, leading his large assembled army fought against the Sarrasins on the banks of the Garonne. But, from the beginning, the Sarrasins were victorious. Eudes, having to flee, recruited the assistance of Charles, Prince of the Francs. Then Charles led his armies and combat ensued in the suburbs of Poitiers [the actual battle took place 20 km North of Poitiers] . The Sarrasins having been beaten by the Francs, and their King, Abd-el-Rahman killed, fled in a most disorderly manner back to Spain. As to Charles, he returned triumphantly to France with the bounty..."

    The Moslems have named that field of Battle: Balad-al-Shouhada -- Place of the Martyrs of the Faith. This victory gave Charles Martel extraordinary prestige, and it is there that he is said to have crushed the arabs "like a hammer". He then occupied the Bourgogne (Burgundy) and pacified the Languedoc, and Provence, thus establishing a significant French Monarchy. He exiled the family of Eucharic of Orleans, who controlled the bishopric of Auxerre, to Hesbaye, and installed his own man, Aimar to the Holy See. Married before 726: Sunnichild de Baviere. Buried: in Oct 741 in Saint Denis, Seine, Ile-de-France, France. Died: on 22 Oct 741 in Kiersy=Quierzy, Aisne, France, Upon Charles Martel's death, his two sons divide the Kingdom in accordance with his wishes. Carloman gets Austrasia, Allemania and Thuringia; Pepin gets Neustria, Burgundy and Provence. The rest, very little, went to Grifon, a bastard child of Charles by Swannhilde, grand-daughter of the Duke of the Bavarians.

# Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
# Note: Page: Charles Martel
# Note: Title: The Plantagenet Ancestry, by William Henry Turton, 1968
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 50-11, 190-11
0647 - 0690 Martin of Laon 43 43 0480 - 0530 Hoamer Vandals 50 50 D. 0450 Galla Placida Rome Galla Placida married the Master of the Soldiers Constantius (who ruled briefly as co-Emperor with Honorius, Galla's brother) when he was at the height of his career, and their son Valentinian III reigned in the West. When the Visigoths under King Alaric I sacked Rome in 410, they carried off Galla with them as hostage. She was of course returned, and later went on to rule the empire when her son was very young with the formal title of "piissima et perpetua Augusta mater" which translates to "most pius and eternal Empress."

---

Galla Placidia (born around 390; died at Rome November 27, 450) lived one of the most eventful lives of late antiquity. Daughter of the Roman emperor Theodosius I and his second wife, Galla, herself daughter of the Emperor Valentinian I, Galla Placidia was half sister of emperors Honorius and Arcadius.

In either 409 or 410, during Alaric's siege of Rome, she became the captive of the Visigoths, who kept her with them as they wandered through Italy, and later Gaul. She married Athaulf, brother of Alaric, and king of the Visigoths after his death, at Narbo in January 414, although the historian Jordanes states that they married earlier, in 411 at Forum Livii (Forli). Jordanes's date may actually be when the Roman empress and the Gothic king first became more than captor and captive. She had a son, Theodosius, by the Visigothic king, but he died in infancy, was buried in Barcelona, but years later the corpse was exhumed and reburied in the imperial mausoleum in Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome. Athaulf was mortally wounded by a servant of a Gothic chieftain he had slain, and before dying in the late summer of 415, instructed his brother to return Galla to the Romans. It was the Gothic King Wallia who traded her to the Romans in return for a treaty and supplies early in 416.

Her brother Honorius forced her into marriage to the Roman Constantius in January of 417. They had a son who became Valentinian III and his rather more strong-willed sister, Justa Grata Honoria. Constantius became emperor in 421, but died shortly afterwards, and Galla was forced from the Western empire to find refuge at Constantinople. After Honorius died, and after the suppression of Joannes, her son Valentinian was elevated as Emperor in Rome in 425.

At first she attempted to rule in her son's name, but as the generals loyal to her one by one either died or defected to Aetius, imperial policy came to rest in his hands by the time he was made patrician.

Throughout her life Galla remained a devout Catholic, and in her later years endowed or enriched several churches in Ravenna.

A good, modern study of Placidia and the times she lived in can be found in Stewart Irwin Oost, Galla Placidia Augusta, A Biographical Essay (1967).

The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna was one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites inscribed in 1996.

0562 Arnoldus Saxony 0676 - 0741 Charles (Martel The Hammer) Austrasia 65 65 # Note: Victor over the Saracens at Tours, Poitiers.

    Carolingian ruler of the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia (in present northeastern France and southwestern Germany). Charles, whose surname means the hammer, was the son of Pepin of Herstal and the grandfather of Charlemagne. Pepin was mayor of the palace under the last kings of the Merovingian dynasty. When he died in 714, Charles, an illegitimate son, was imprisoned by his father's widow, but he escaped in 715 and was proclaimed mayor of the palace by the Austrasians. A war between Austrasia and the Frankish kingdom of Neustria (now part of France) followed, and at the end of it Charles became the undisputed ruler of all the Franks. Although he was engaged in wars against the Alamanni, Bavarians, and Saxons, his greatest achievements were against the Muslims from Spain, who invaded France in 732. Charles defeated them near Poitiers in a great battle in which the Muslim leader, Abd-ar-Rahman, the emir of Spain, was killed. The progress of Islam, which had filled all Christendom with alarm, was thus checked for a time. Charles drove the Muslims out of the Rhone valley in 739, when they had again advanced into France as far as Lyon, leaving them nothing of their possessions north of the Pyrenees beyond the Aude River. Charles died in Quierzy, on the Oise River, leaving the kingdom divided between his two sons, Carloman (circa 715-54) and Pepin the Short.

# Note: SOURCES:
# Note: Charles Martel (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 191.)

# Note: (Paul, Nouveau Larousse Universel.)
# Note: (Rosamond, Frankish kingdom under Carolingians.)
# Note: (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, Page 129, Line 171-43.)
# Note: (Andre Castelot, Histoire de La France, Tome 1, Pages 271 - 273, 369).

    Born: in 686 in Chateau de Franchemont, Belgium, son of Pepin II d'Heristal and Aupais=Alpaide N? , The Chateau de Franchemont is near Spa and also Verviers, which may have encompassed Heristal. During World War II, the resistance used the tunnels under the castle to hide people and supplies from the German hordes.

    Married before 715: Rotrude=Chrotrud, Duchesse d'Austrasie , daughter of Saint Lievin=Leutwinus, Bishop de Treves and N. d'Istrie. Note - between 715 and 741: Toward the end of 715, Charles escaped from the prison his step-grandmother had locked him in, and rallies the Austrasians. In March, 716, however, in his first conflict with the Frisons who were edging their way up the Rhine, Charles is routed. A few weeks later, he is able to beat the Neustrians on the Ambeve River, near Malmedy. on 21 March 717, he is victorious over the Neustrians again, this time at Vincy, near Cambrai and he forces Chilperic II and his Mayor of the Palace, Rainfroi to flee to Paris. In 714, Charles takes the title Mayor of the Palace of Neustria, and gives the Neustrians a new King, Clotaire IV, son of Thierry III [who had died in 691] . The same year, his armies ravage Saxe all the way to the Weser River. In early 719, Clotaire IV died, and Rainfroi and Chilperic II obtain the assistance of Eudes, Duke of Aquitaine in a campaign against Charles. Charles defeats both armies; however, since Clotaire IV is dead, Charles recognizes Chilperic, but he becomes the Major Domus of both Neustria and Austrasia. When Chilperic II died in 721, Charles pulled Thierry IV, young adolescent son of Dagobert III, out of the Monastery of Chelles. from 722 to 724, the arabs mount successful offensives and pillage Autun. Charles, worried about maintaining the Franc authority, Charles Martel mounts a frightfully succesful campaign in Bavaria against the Allemanians and the Frisons, and he destroys their temples. Theutbald, Duke of the Allemanians is essentially powerless. In Gaule, toward the end of the decade, Charles turns his attention to Eudes, Duke of Aquitaine, who had maintained too independent an attitude. Aquitaine is ravaged in the process. In 730, Eudes allies himself with an Emir of northern Spain, Othmann ben Abi-Nessa and the arabs agin a foothold in southern France. By 732, a new emir, Adb-el-Rahman invades from Pampelona, cross the Pyrenees near Roncevaux, take and pillage Bordeaux, burning all the churches. In the Summer, they take Poitiers and destroy the basilica of Saint-Hilaire-hors-les-murs. On Saturday 17 October 732, Charles Martel's armies take the great Roman way linking Chatellerault to Poitiers and at 20 km North of Poitiers, at Moussais-la-Bataille, it encounters the arabs. They would observe each other for 7 days before the Battle of Poitiers would take place.

    The Battle of Poitiers: One Chronicler, Fredegaire described the action as follows: "Duke Eudes, being viewed with derision throughout his lands, called against Prince Charles and the nation of the Francs, that most perfidious race of the Sarrasins [that is not accurate as Eudes had first allied himself with an Emir, but then called upon Charles for aid when events turned on him] . The Sarrasins, led by their King, Abd-el-Rahman cross Gerona [another error as they set out from Pampelona and crossed the pyrenees at Roncevaux] . After having burned the churches, and crushed the population, they arrive in Poitiers. When they burn the Basilica and destroy the residence of Saint Martin, Prince Charles put into action an audacious plan and the order of Battle is given. With the aid of Jesus Christ, our Lord, our valorous Prince destroys their tents and flies into combat to crush them..."

# Note: A less glorious account is given by a monk of the Abbey of Moissac:

    "The King of Spain, Abd-el-Rahman, having crossed the Pyrenees with his large army from Pampelona, laid siege to Bordeaux. Then Eudes, Prince of Aquitaine, leading his large assembled army fought against the Sarrasins on the banks of the Garonne. But, from the beginning, the Sarrasins were victorious. Eudes, having to flee, recruited the assistance of Charles, Prince of the Francs. Then Charles led his armies and combat ensued in the suburbs of Poitiers [the actual battle took place 20 km North of Poitiers] . The Sarrasins having been beaten by the Francs, and their King, Abd-el-Rahman killed, fled in a most disorderly manner back to Spain. As to Charles, he returned triumphantly to France with the bounty..."

    The Moslems have named that field of Battle: Balad-al-Shouhada -- Place of the Martyrs of the Faith. This victory gave Charles Martel extraordinary prestige, and it is there that he is said to have crushed the arabs "like a hammer". He then occupied the Bourgogne (Burgundy) and pacified the Languedoc, and Provence, thus establishing a significant French Monarchy. He exiled the family of Eucharic of Orleans, who controlled the bishopric of Auxerre, to Hesbaye, and installed his own man, Aimar to the Holy See. Married before 726: Sunnichild de Baviere. Buried: in Oct 741 in Saint Denis, Seine, Ile-de-France, France. Died: on 22 Oct 741 in Kiersy=Quierzy, Aisne, France, Upon Charles Martel's death, his two sons divide the Kingdom in accordance with his wishes. Carloman gets Austrasia, Allemania and Thuringia; Pepin gets Neustria, Burgundy and Provence. The rest, very little, went to Grifon, a bastard child of Charles by Swannhilde, grand-daughter of the Duke of the Bavarians.

# Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
# Note: Page: Charles Martel
# Note: Title: The Plantagenet Ancestry, by William Henry Turton, 1968
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 50-11, 190-11
0852 - 0905 Ealhswith of the Gaini 53 53 0604 Emma de Austrasia 0582 Arnolph de Heristal 0585 Modoaldus 0531 Odd von Sachsen 0567 - 0636 Oda Suevia 69 69 # Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 190-7
0602 - 0685 Ansigisen Austrasia 83 83 Ansegis=Ansegisus, Duke d'Austrasie (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 191.)
(Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, Page 129, Line 171-45).

# Note: Born: in 602 in Austrasia, son of Arnoul=Arnulf, Bishop de Metz and Dode=Doda=Clothilde de Saxe.

# Note: Occupation: in 632 Ansegis was Mayor of the Palace of Austrasie to Sigebert in 632. Married circa 635: Sainte Begge=Begga de Landen, daughter of Pepin de Landen and Iduberge=Sainte Ida N?. Died: in 685 Ansegis was murdered.
# Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
# Note: Page: Arnulf of Metz, Pepin II
# Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
# Note: Page: 190-9
0800 Aslaug Sigurdsdatter 0806 Thora Sigurdsdatter 0830 Ryurik of Novgorod Canute Sigurdsson 0390 - 0445 Merovee of the Franks 55 55 0398 Hatilde de Espana 0358 - 0401 Sunno of the Franks 43 43 0467 Merown von Thuringia 0324 - 0396 Priarios Frank of Toxandrie 72 72 0500 - 0578 Wuffa 78 78 0475 Wehha 0745 - 0804 Theodoen of Autun 59 59 0460 - 0480 Hartwaker of Saxony 20 20 0630 Eormenred of Kent 0328 Bernic of Northumbria 0325 Sibald of Deira 0326 Sweabdaeg of Deira 0221 Gewar av Norge Fionnliath 0795 - 0837 Hemming Halfdansson 42 42 Klack- Harald Hemmingsson 0748 - 0793 Wihtgar of the Isle of Wight 45 45 0750 - 0804 Sabd of Ossory 54 54 0720 - 0771 Maelaithgen of Ossary 51 51 0720 - 0782 Feargna of Leinster 62 62 0699 - 0751 Colman of Ossary 52 52 0694 - 0727 Murchard of Leinster 33 33 0550 - 0645 Carloman Austrasia 95 95 0590 Wandregisi of Austrasia Name: Wandregisi
Given Name: Wandregisi
Sex: M
Birth: ABT 0590
Reference Number: 38808070
_UID: 54389BD1B26C1C45B142F2D8C6AC5B3B3C67
Note:
Son of Walchisus and Waldrada; m. Farahild; father of St. Amalaberga who m.
Theuderic III, king of Franks. [GRS 3.03, Automated Archives, CD#100]
Change Date: 19 Mar 2003 at 17:13:09

Father: Walchisus b: ABT 0560
Mother: Waldrada b: ABT 0560

Marriage 1 Farahild b: ABT 0590
Children
Amalaberga St. Amalaberga Chlotilde b: ABT 0640 in France
From 'Glick/Foster Ancestry' at Rootsweb.com
0590 Farahild FitzHermanfried 0580 Walchisus of Austrasia Name: Walchisus
Given Name: Walchisus
Sex: M
Birth: ABT 0560
Reference Number: 77616140
_UID: D907E8175EE00D42A01EC3FA3BAD275D5394
Note:
m. Waldrada; father of Wandregisi who m. Farahild. [GRS 3.03, Automated
Archives, CD#100]
Change Date: 19 Mar 2003 at 17:13:09

Marriage 1 Waldrada b: ABT 0560
Children
Wandregisi b: ABT 0590
From 'Glick/Foster Ancestry' at Rootsweb.com
0560 Waldrata of Austrasia 0560 Hermanfried FitzWalchisus Name: Hemanfried
Given Name: Hemanfried
Sex: M
Birth: ABT 0560
Reference Number: 77616142
_UID: 0F7A8AE35EE20944BEFC23747830FE9F19FA
Note: Father of Farahild who m. Wandregisi. [GRS 3.03, Automated Archives, CD#100][
Change Date: 19 Mar 2003 at 17:13:09

Marriage 1 Spouse Unknown
Children
Farahild b: ABT 0590
From 'Glick/Foster Ancestry' at Rootsweb.com
D. 0708 Dreux Carolingian 0346 - 0395 Theodosius I 49 49     Emperor of Rome in the East 378-394
    Emperor of Rome 394-395
    Theodosius was the son of the famous general Flavius Theodosius and was born in Spain. As a young man, he often accompanied his father in the British campaigns, but when he later died Theodosius retired to Spain. When the Roman Emperor Valens in the East died in 378, his co-Emperor Gratian in the West appointed Theodosius to rule the East as Emperor. In 382, Theodosius finally compromised with the invading Visigoths that they could remain in the Empire as long as they served in the army.
    When the Roman Emperor Gratian died in 383, Theodosius recognized the usurper Maximus as Emperor in the West with the exception of Italy, where Valentinian II ruled as Emperor. In 388, Maximus attacked Theodosius, however Theodosius defeated and killed him, returning sole rule fo the West to his co-Emperor Valentinian. In 392, Valentinian's general Arbogast killed the Western Emperor and gave the crown to Eugenius as a puppet ruler in his place. Theodosius marched to Italy and defeated the two pretenders in 394, becoming the first sole Roman Emperor since the Emperor Jovian died in 364. He formally divided the Roman Empire on his death permanently into two separate, independent empires of the West and the East. He was succeeded by his sons Arcadius and Honorius to the East and West respectively.

0584 - 0628 Clothaire Meroving 44 44 Clotaire II was not yet born when his father, King Chilperic I died in 584. His mother, Queen Fredegonde, administered his kingdom until her death in 597. At age 13, Clotaire II began to rule for himself.

In 613 Clotaire II became the first king of all the Franks since his grandfather Clotaire I died in 561 by ordering the murder of Sigebert II who had ascended to the thrones of Austrasia and Burgundia.

In 615, Clotaire II promulgated the Edict of Paris, a sort of Frankish Magna Carta that reserved many rights to the Frankish nobles while it excluded Jews from all civil employment for the Crown, a ban which placed all the literacy available to the Merovingian monarchy squarely under ecclesiastical control and also greatly pleased the nobles, from whose ranks the bishops were ordinarily exclusively drawn. Then, in 623 he gave the kingdom of Austrasia to his young son Dagobert I. This was a political move as repayment for the support of Bishop Arnulf of Metz and Pepin I, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, the two leading Austrasian nobles, who were effectively granted semi-autonomy.

Clotaire II died in 629.

---

King of Soissons 584-613
King of the Franks 613-629

When his father, King Chilperic I of Soissons died in 584, Chlotar wasnot yet even born. Until 597, his kingdom was administered by his mother,Queen Fredegund, but when she died that year he bagan to rule for himself, now 13 years old. In 613, the Austrasian and Burgundian kings,Theudebert II and Theuderic II respectively, had died, and Queen Brunhild had placed the young Sigebert II on the throne of those two kingdoms.That year, the 29 year old Chlotar had Sigebert and Brunhild killed, and became the first king of all the Franks since his grandfather Chlotar Idied in 561.

In 615, Chlotar passed the Edict of Paris, a sort of French Magna Carta that greatly pleased the nobles across the kingdom. In 623, he gave the kingdom of Austrasia to his young son Dagobert I, which was a political move giving Pepin I, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, and Bishop Arnulfof Metz, the two leading Austrasian nobles, semi-autonomy for their loyalty to Chlotar. In 629, Chlotar died and Dagobert became sole king, moving his capital from Austrasia to Paris.


Clotaire II
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clotaire II (584-629), King of Neustria, and from 613-629 King of all the Franks, was not yet born when his father, King Chilperic I died in 584. His mother, Queen Fredegonde, was regent until her death in 597, at which time the thirteen year old Clotaire II began to rule for himself. As King, he continued his mother's feud with Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia with equal viciousness and bloodshed.

In 613 Clotaire II became the first king of all the Franks since his grandfather Clotaire I died in 561 by ordering the murder of the infant Sigebert II, whom the aging Brunhilda had attempted to set on the thrones of Austrasia and Burgundia, causing a rebellion among the nobility. This led to the delivery of Brunhilda into Clotaire's hands, his thirst for vengeance leading to his formidable old aunt enduring the agony of the rack for three whole days, before suffering a horrific death, chained between four horses that were goaded in separate directions, eventually tearing her apart.

In 615, Clotaire II promulgated the Edict of Paris, a sort of Frankish Magna Carta that reserved many rights to the Frankish nobles while it excluded Jews from all civil employment for the Crown. The ban effectively placed all literacy in the Merovingian monarchy squarely under ecclesiastical control and also greatly pleased the nobles, from whose ranks the bishops were ordinarily exclusively drawn.

In 623 he gave the kingdom of Austrasia to his young son Dagobert I. This was a political move as repayment for the support of Bishop Arnulf of Metz and Pepin I, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, the two leading Austrasian nobles, who were effectively granted semi-autonomy.

Clotaire II died in 629.

~0670 Bicne of Ireland ~0675 - 0733 Fearcorbda of Alba 58 58 0630 - 0713 Theodon de Bavaria 83 83 0649 - 0703 Feradhach of Alba 54 54 0658 - 0712 Rossa na Mumhain 54 54 0678 - 0719 Fearchar of Alba 41 41 0681 - 0711 Fearchad of Alba 30 30 0631 - 0687 Fearghus of Alba 56 56 0632 - 0675 Feargna na Mumhain 43 43 0604 - 0645 Nechtan of Alba 41 41 0603 - 0649 Osyth of Mercia 46 46 0638 Feargusa of Alba 0580 - 0641 Colum of Alba 61 61 0584 - 0652 Redwalda of East Anglia 68 68 0554 - 0589 Baodan of Alba 35 35 0551 - 0603 Fleida na Mumhain 52 52 0530 - 0597 Eochaidh of Alba 67 67 0511 - 0572 Muireadhach of Alba 61 61 0487 - 0527 Loairn na hEireann 40 40 0514 - 0576 Aoife of Alba 62 62 0461 - 0511 Erc na hÉireann 50 50 0481 - 0521 Fergus of Scotland 40 40 0412 - 0476 Eochaidh na hÉireann 64 64 0464 - 0525 Maelcorce na hÉireann 61 61 0384 - 0439 Aonghus na hÉireann 55 55 0362 - 0419 Fearghus na hÉireann 57 57 0341 - 0402 Eochaidh na hÉireann 61 61 0323 - 0381 Conaire na hÉireann 58 58 0349 - 0393 Olioll na hÉireann 44 44 0305 - 0362 Modha na hÉireann 57 57 0286 - 0341 Lughaidh na hÉireann 55 55 0264 - 0327 Cairbre na hÉireann 63 63 0243 - 0301 Daire na hÉireann 58 58 0260 - 0318 Mew na hÉireann 58 58 0267 - 0318 Eochaidh na hÉireann 51 51 0221 - 0270 Cairbre na hÉireann 49 49 0242 - 0299 Sabd na hÉireann 57 57 0202 - 0263 Conaire na hÉireann 61 61 0184 - 0241 Etercel na hÉireann 57 57 0162 - 0207 Eoghan na hÉireann 45 45 0140 - 0199 Olioll na hÉireann 59 59 0119 - 0170 Iar na hÉireann 51 51 0122 - 0178 Sinusa na hÉireann 56 56 <0100 Deagha Mac Sin ~0019 - 0117 Sin Mac Ro-sin 98 98 ~0035 Eochaidh Mac Sin <0100 Gos Mac Sin ~0004 Ro-sin Mac Trer 11 BC Trer Mac Roithriun ~27 BC Roithriun Mac Airndil ~ 12 BC Reuther Mac Roithriun ~44 BC Airndil Mac Maine Mor ~59 BC Maine Mor Mac Forga ~74 BC Forga Mac Fearadhach ~99 BC Fearadhach Mac Fiachaidh Fear Mara ~115 BC - ~58 BC Fiachaidh Fear Mara Mac Aonghus Tuirimheach ~83 BC Olill Earann Mac Fiachaidh Fear Mara <0100 Fiatach Find Mac Fiachaidh Fear Mara ~130 BC - 68 BC Aonghus Tuirimheach Mac Eochaidh Ailtleathan 132 BC - 59 BC Magach na hÉireann 108 BC Enna Mac Aonghus Tuirimheach 174 BC - 107 BC Eochaidh Ailtleathan Mac Olioll Caisfhiaclac 191 BC - 140 BC Olioll Caisfhiaclach Mac Conla Caomh 211 BC - 172 BC Conla Caomh Mac Iarn Gleo-fathach 210 BC - 168 BC Sabhdh na hÉireann 231 BC - 182 BC Iarn Gleo-fathach Mac Melghe Molbhtach ~250 BC Melghe Molbhtach Mac Cobhtach Caol-hreagh 267 BC - 204 BC Cobhtach Caol-bhreagh Mac Ugaine Mor 300 BC - 239 BC Ugaine Mor Mac Eochaidh Buidh 270 BC - 202 BC Leghaire Lorc Mac Ugaine Mor 336 BC - 286 BC Eochaidh Buidh Mac Duach Ladhgrach 0371 BC - 310 BC Duach Ladhgrach Mac Fiachadh Tolgrach 410 BC - 367 BC Fiachadh Tolgrach Mac Muireadhach Bolgrach 433 BC - 389 BC Muireadhach Bolgrach Mac Siomon Breac <0100 Duachas Teamhra Mac Muireadhach Bolgrach 477 BC - 418 BC Siomon Breac Mac Aodh Glas 501 BC - 488 BC Aodh Glas Mac Nuadhat Fionnfail 572 BC - 467 BC Nuadhat Fionnfail Mac Giallchadh 505 BC Eyvindr na hÉireann 503 BC Dubha na hÉireann 544 BC - 0497 BC Giallchaidh Mac Olioll Ollchain 560 BC - 507 BC Olioll Ollchain Mac Siorna Saoghalach 579 BC - 530 BC Siorna Saoghalach Mac Dian 599 BC - 541 BC Dian Mac Deman 615 BC - 572 BC Deman Mac Roitheachtach 633 BC - 599 BC Roitheachtach Mac Maon 650 BC - 611 BC Maon Mac Aongus Ollmuchach 0651 - 598 BC Havarfiad na hÉireann 665 BC - 618 BC Aongus Ollmuchach Mac Fiachadh Labhrainn 682 BC - 637 BC Fiachadh Labhrainn Mac Smiorgoill 700 BC - 642 BC Smiorgoill Mac Eanbothadh 717 BC - 673 BC Eanbothadh Mac Tighearnmas 735 BC - 692 BC Tighearnmas Mac Follagh 735 BC Sinusa na hÉireann 751 BC - 702 BC Follagh Mac Eithriall 769 BC - 711 BC Eithriall Mac Irial Faidh 784 BC - 741 BC Irial Faidh Mac Eochaid 824 BC - 796 BC Ereamhon na hÉireann 803 BC Muinhe Mac Eochaid 806 BC Luighne Mac Eochaid 808 BC Laighne Mac Eochaid 853 BC - 806 BC Milesius de Galatia ~850 BC Scota Tephi Nectaebus of Egypte 889 BC - 839 BC Bile de Galatia 924 BC - ~872 BC Breoghan of Getulia ~964 BC Brathaus of Getulia ~1015 BC Deagh of Getulia ~1063 BC Arcadh of Getulia ~1100 BC Albadh of Getulia 1140 BC Nuadhad of Getulia ~1165 BC Nenuall of Getulia ~1200 BC Febric Glas of Getulia ~1230 BC Agnon Fionn of Getulia ~1255 BC Heber Glunfionn of Scythia ~1280 BC Lamh Fionn of Scythia ~1320 BC Agnan of Scythia ~1370 BC Tait of Scythia ~1420 BC Oghaman of Scythia ~1460 BC Beouman of Scythia ~1510 BC Heber Scutt ~1560 BC Sruth al- Khem ~1610 BC Asruth al- Khem 1665 BC Gaodhal al- Khem 1695 BC Niul Nemnach 1745 BC Phoeniusa Farsaidh ibn Baoth ~1270 BC Scota al- Khem 1765 BC Baoth ibn Magog ~1840 BC Magog ibn Japhet 2446 BC Japhet ibn Tubal- cain <0100 Adateneses bint Eliakim <0100 Tubal- cain ibn Lamech <0100 Nin-banda bint Abar-gi 3152 BC - 2375 BC Lamech ibn Methusael <0100 Zillah bint Kainan <0100 Methusael ibn Mehujael <0100 Mehujael ibn Yarad <0100 Yarad ibn Enoch <0100 Enoch of Ur <0100 Luluwa- Lilith of Mesopotamia <0100 Ar-wi- um of Mesopotamia <0100 Enki Samael of the Immortals 4001 BC - 3062 BC Khawa of Elda Nergal of the Immortals Eresh- kigal of the Immortals Enlil of the Immortals Belet-ili of the Immortals Anu of the Immortals Ki Urash of the Immortals Anshar of the Immortals Kishar of the Immortals Apsu of the Immortals Tiamat of the Immortals Lahmu of the Immortals Lahamu of the Immortals Lahmu of the Immortals Lahamu of the Immortals Mammu of the Immortals Kingu of the Immortals Ki Urash of the Immortals Nanna Sin of the Immortals Ningal of the Immortals Enlil of the Immortals Ninlil of the Immortals Hiah of the Immortals Nidaba Numarsheguni of the Immortals Enki of the Immortals Anu of the Immortals Antu of the Immortals Antu of the Immortals Enki of the Immortals Nin-Khursag of the Immortals Nin-Khursag of the Immortals <0100 Enki Samael of the Immortals Lilith of the Immortals Lilith of the Immortals 3679 BC - 2859 BC Kainan ibn Enos Mualeleth bint Enos 3769 BC - 2864 BC Enos ibn Set-naal Neom bint Set-naal 3874 BC - 2962 BC Set- naal of Mesopotamia Meryet- Nit of Mesopotamia 4001 BC - 3062 BC Khawa of Elda 4003 BC - 3072 BC Adama of Elda 4003 BC - 3072 BC Adama of Elda Meryet- Nit of Mesopotamia 3874 BC - 2962 BC Set- naal of Mesopotamia Kalimath of Mesopotamia Kalimath of Mesopotamia 3339 BC - 2370 BC Matushlah ibn Enoch Edna bat Ezrael 3404 BC - 3039 BC Enoch ibn Yared 3404 BC Edna bat Danel 3544 BC - 2582 BC Yared ibn Mahlalail Baraka bint Mahlalail 3609 BC - 2714 BC Mahlalail ibn Kainan Sina bint Baraki el 3609 BC - 2714 BC Mahlalail ibn Kainan Baraki el